Kevatta (Kevaddha) Sutta – DN 11

0
57
Buddha
Buddha

Dīgha Nikāya

Sīlakkhandhavagga

Kevaddha Sutta

11. Tentang Kevaddha

Apa yang Tidak Diketahui Brahmā

Demikianlah yang kudengar. Pada suatu ketika Sang Bhagavā sedang menetap di Nāḷandā, di kebun mangga Pāvārika. Dan perumah tangga Kevaddha datang menemui Sang Bhagavā, bersujud kepada Beliau, dan duduk di satu sisi. Kemudian ia berkata: ‘Bhagavā, Nāḷandā ini kaya, makmur, ramai, dan dipenuhi dengan orang yang berkeyakinan terhadap Sang Bhagavā. Baik sekali jika Sang Bhagavā mengutus beberapa bhikkhu untuk melakukan pertunjukan kesaktian dan keajaiban. Dengan demikian Nālandā akan lebih berkeyakinan terhadap Bhagavā.’

Sang Bhagavā menjawab: ‘Kevaddha, itu bukanlah cara Aku mengajarkan Dhamma kepada para bhikkhu, dengan mengatakan: “Pergilah, para bhikkhu, dan perlihatkanlah kesaktian dan keajaiban demi umat-awam berjubah putih!’

Untuk kedua kalinya Kevaddha berkata: ‘Bhagavā, aku tidak akan memaksa, namun aku tetap mengatakan: “Nālandā ini kaya, makmur, … akan lebih berkeyakinan terhadap Bhagavā.”’ Dan Sang Bhagavā menjawab seperti sebelumnya.

ketika Kevaddha mengulangi permohonannya untuk ketiga kalinya, Sang Bhagavā berkata: ‘Kevaddha, ada tiga jenis kesaktian yang kKnyatakan, setelah mencapainya dengan pandangan terang-Ku sendiri. Apakah tiga itu? Kesaktian kekuatan batin, kesaktian telepati, kesaktian pengajaran.

‘Apakah kesaktian kekuatan batin? Di sini, Kevaddha, seorang bhikkhu memperlihatkan berbagai kesaktian dalam berbagai cara. Dari satu ia menjadi banyak, dari banyak ia menjadi satu … (seperti Sutta 2, paragraf 87) dan ia dengan tubuhnya pergi hingga ke alam Brahma. Dan seseorang yang memiliki keyakinan dan percaya akan melihatnya melakukan hal-hal ini.

‘Ia memberitahukan hal ini kepada orang lain yang skeptis dan tidak percaya, dengan mengatakan: “Sungguh indah, sungguh menakjubkan, kesaktian dan keterampilan dari pertapa itu … ” Dan orang itu akan berkata: “Tuan, ada sesuatu yang disebut jimat Gandhāra. Dengan itu bhikkhu tersebut menjadi banyak … ” Bagaimana menurutmu, Kevaddha, tidak mungkinkah seorang skeptis mengatakan hal itu kepada seorang yang percaya?’ ‘Mungkin saja, Bhagavā’ ‘Dan itulah sebabnya, Kevaddha, melihat bahaya dari kesaktian demikian, Aku tidak menyukai, menolak dan mencelanya.

‘Dan apakah kesaktian telepati? Di sini, seorang bhikkhu membaca pikiran makhluk-makhluk lain, pikiran orang lain, membaca kondisi pikiran mereka, pemikiran dan pertimbangan mereka, dan mengatakan: “Pikiranmu seperti ini, kecenderunganmu seperti ini, hatimu seperti ini”. Dan seseorang yang berkeyakinan dan percaya akan melihatnya melakukan hal-hal ini.

‘Ia memberitahukan hal ini kepada orang lain yang skeptis dan tidak percaya, dengan mengatakan: “Sungguh indah, sungguh menakjubkan, kesaktian dan keterampilan dari pertapa itu … ” Dan orang itu akan berkata: “Tuan, ada sesuatu yang disebut jimat Maṇika. Dengan itu bhikkhu tersebut dapat membaca pikiran orang lain … ” Dan itulah sebabnya, Kevaddha, melihat bahaya dari kesaktian demikian, Aku … dan mencelanya.

‘Dan apakah kesaktian pengajaran? Di sini, Kevaddha, seorang bhikkhu memberikan pengajaran sebagai berikut: “Perhatikan seperti ini, jangan perhatikan seperti itu, arahkan pikiranmu seperti ini, bukan seperti itu, lepaskan itu, capai ini dan pertahankan ini.” Itu, Kevaddha, disebut kesaktian pengajaran.

‘Dan lagi, Kevaddha, seorang Tathāgata telah muncul di dunia ini, seorang Arahant, Buddha yang telah mencapai penerangan sempurna, memiliki kebijaksanaan dan perilaku yang sempurna, telah sempurna menempuh Sang Jalan, Pengenal seluruh alam, Penjinak manusia yang harus dijinakkan yang tiada bandingnya, Guru para dewa dan manusia, Yang Tercerahkan dan Yang Suci. Beliau, setelah mencapainya dengan pengetahuanNya sendiri, menyatakan dunia ini dengan para dewa, māra dan Brahmā, para raja dan umat manusia. Beliau membabarkan Dhamma, yang indah di awal, indah di pertengahan, indah di akhir, dalam makna dan kata, dan menunjukkan kehidupan suci yang sempurna dan murni sepenuhnya. Seorang siswa pergi meninggalkan keduniawian dan mempraktikkan moralitas (Sutta 2, paragraf 41–63). Ia menjaga pintu-pintu indrianya dan mencapai empat jhàna (Sutta 2, paragraf 64–82 ); ia mencapai berbagai pandangan terang (Sutta 2, paragraf 83–84); ia menembus Empat Kebenaran Mulia, sang jalan dan lenyapnya kekotoran-kekotoran (Sutta 2, paragraf 85–97). dan ia mengetahui: “ … Tidak ada lagi yang lebih jauh di sini.” Itu, Kevaddha, disebut kesaktian pengajaran.

‘Dan Aku, Kevaddha, telah mengalami ketiga kesaktian ini dengan pengetahuan-super-Ku sendiri. Suatu ketika, Kevaddha, dalam kumpulan para bhikkhu ini, suatu pikiran melintas dalam benak seorang bhikkhu: “Aku ingin tahu di manakah empat unsur utama—unsur tanah, unsur air, unsur api, unsur angin—lenyap tanpa sisa.” Dan bhikkhu itu mencapai konsentrasi pikiran hingga mampu memunculkan jalan menuju alam dewa di hadapannya.

‘Kemudian, setelah sampai di alam dewa Empat Raja Dewa, ia bertanya kepada para dewa di sana: “Teman-teman, di manakah empat unsur utama—tanah, air, api, angin lenyap tanpa sisa?” Mendengar pertanyaan ini, para dewa dari alam Empat Raja Dewa berkata kepadanya: “Bhikkhu, kami tidak mengetahui di mana empat unsur utama itu lenyap tanpa sisa. Tetapi Empat Raja Dewa lebih mulia dan lebih bijaksana daripada kami. Mungkin mereka tahu di mana empat unsur utama lenyap … ”

‘Maka bhikkhu itu mendatangi Empat Raja Dewa dan mengajukan pertanyaan yang sama, tetapi mereka menjawab: “Kami tidak tahu, tetapi Tiga Puluh Tiga Dewa mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Maka bhikkhu itu mendatangi Tiga Puluh Tiga Dewa yang menjawab: “Kami tidak tahu, tetapi Sakka, raja para dewa, mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Sakka, raja para dewa, berkata: “Dewa Yāma mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Dewa Yāma berkata: “Suyāma, putera para dewa, mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Suyāma berkata: “Para dewa Tusita mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Para dewa Tusita berkata: “Santusita, putra para dewa, mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Santusita berkata: “Para dewa Nimmānarati mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Para dewa Nimmānarati berkata: “Sunimmita, putra para dewa, mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Sunimmita berkata: “Para dewa Paranimmita-Vasavatti mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘para dewa Paranimmita-Vasavatti berkata: “Vasavatti, putra para dewa, mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Vasavatti berkata: “Para dewa pengikut Brahmā mungkin mengetahui … ”

‘Kemudian bhikkhu itu, dengan mengerahkan konsentrasinya, memunculkan jalan menuju ke alam Brahmā di hadapannya. Ia pergi ke alam dewa para pengikut Brahmā dan bertanya kepada mereka. Mereka berkata: “Kami tidak tahu. Tapi ada Brahmā, Brahmā Agung, Sang Penakluk, yang Tidak Tertaklukkan, Maha Melihat, Maha Sakti, Raja, Sang Pencipta, Penguasa, Pengambil Keputusan dan Pemberi Perintah, Ayah dari Semua Yang Ada dan Yang Akan Ada. Ia lebih mulia dan lebih bijaksana daripada kami. Ia pasti mengetahui di mana empat unsur utama lenyap tanpa sisa.” “Dan di manakah, teman, Brahmā Agung itu berada sekarang?” “Bhikkhu, kami tidak tahu kapan, bagaimana dan di mana Brahmā akan muncul. Tetapi ketika tandanya terlihat—ketika cahaya muncul dan sinarnya memancar—maka Brahmā akan muncul. Tanda demikian menandakan bahwa ia akan muncul.”

‘Dan tidak lama kemudian, Sang Brahma Agung muncul. Dan bhikkhu itu mendatanginya dan berkata: “Teman, di manakah empat unsur utama—tanah, air, api, angin—lenyap tanpa sisa?” Brahmā Agung menjawab: “Bhikkhu, aku adalah Brahmā, Brahmā Agung, Sang Penakluk, yang Tidak Tertaklukkan, Maha Melihat, Maha Sakti, Raja, Sang Pencipta, Penguasa, Pengambil Keputusan dan Pemberi Perintah, Ayah dari Semua Yang Ada dan Yang Akan ada.”

‘Untuk kedua kalinya bhikkhu itu berkata: “Teman, aku tidak menanyakan apakah engkau Brahmā, Brahmā Agung … Aku menanyakan kepadamu di manakah empat unsur utama lenyap tanpa sisa.” Dan untuk kedua kalinya sang Brahmā Agung menjawab seperti sebelumnya.

‘Dan untuk ketiga kalinya bhikkhu itu berkata: “Teman, aku tidak menanyakan itu kepadamu, aku menanyakan di manakah empat unsur utama—tanah, air, api, angin—lenyap tanpa sisa?” Kemudian, Kevaddha, sang Brahmā Agung mengangkat bhikkhu tersebut, dan membawanya ke pinggir dan berkata: “Bhikkhu, para dewa ini percaya bahwa tidak ada apapun yang tidak terlihat oleh Brahmā, tidak ada yang tidak diketahui olehnya, tidak ada yang tidak disadarinya. Itulah sebabnya aku tidak berbicara di depan mereka. Tetapi, bhikkhu, aku tidak tahu di mana empat unsur utama itu lenyap tanpa sisa. Dan karena itu, bhikkhu, engkau telah salah bertindak, engkau telah keliru bertindak dengan melampaui Sang Bhagavā dan pergi mencari jawaban atas pertanyaan ini di tempat lain. Sekarang, bhikkhu, pergilah kepada Sang Bhagavā dan ajukan pertanyaanmu kepada Beliau, dan apapun jawaban yang Beliau berikan, terimalah.”

‘Maka bhikkhu itu, secepat seorang kuat merentangkan atau melipat tangannya, lenyap dari alam Brahmā dan muncul di hadapanKu. Ia bersujud di hadapanKu, kemudian duduk di satu sisi dan berkata: “Bhagavā, di manakah empat unsur utama—unsur tanah, unsur air, unsur api, unsur angin—lenyap tanpa sisa?”

‘Aku menjawab: “Bhikkhu, suatu ketika para pedagang yang melakukan perjalanan laut, ketika mereka berlayar di lautan, membawa di kapal mereka seekor burung yang dapat melihat daratan. Ketika mereka tidak dapat melihat daratan, mereka akan melepaskan burung itu. Burung itu terbang ke timur, ke selatan, ke barat, ke utara, ia terbang ke atas dan ke arah-arah antara dua arah di kompas. Jika burung itu melihat daratan di arah manapun, ia akan terbang ke sana. Tetapi jika ia tidak melihat daratan, ia akan kembali ke kapal. Demikianlah, bhikkhu, engkau telah pergi hingga ke alam Brahmā untuk mencari jawaban atas pertanyaanmu dan tidak menemukannya, dan sekarang engkau kembali kepadaKu. Tetapi, bhikkhu, engkau seharusnya tidak bertanya dengan cara ini: ‘Di manakah empat unsur utama—unsur tanah, unsur air, unsur api, unsur angin—lenyap tanpa sisa?’ Melainkan, beginilah seharusnya pertanyaan itu di ajukan:

‘Di manakah tanah, air, api dan angin tidak menemukan landasannya?

Di manakah yang panjang dan pendek, kecil dan besar, berpenampilan baik dan berpenampilan buruk –

Di manakah ‘“nama-dan-bentuk” dihancurkan seluruhnya?’

Dan jawabannya adalah:

‘Di mana kesadaran adalah tanpa gambaran, tidak terbatas, maha- cemerlang,

Di sanalah tanah, air, api dan angin tidak menemukan landasan,

Di sanalah yang panjang dan pendek, kecil dan besar, berpenampilan baik dan berpenampilan buruk –

Di sana “nama-dan-bentuk” dihancurkan seluruhnya.

Dengan lenyapnya kesadaran, semua ini dihancurkan.’”’

Demikianlah Sang Bhagavā berkata, dan perumah tangga Kevaddha, senang dan gembira mendengar kata-kata Beliau.

Sumber: https://legacy.suttacentral.net/id/dn11

ong Discourses

Kevaṭṭa Sutta

11. To Kevaṭṭa

Thus have I heard. Once the Exalted One was staying at Nāḷanda in Pāvārika’s mango grove. At that time, Kevaṭṭa, a young householder, approached the Exalted One, paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. Seated, he said to the Exalted One:

“Venerable Sir, this Nāḷanda of ours is influential and prosperous, populous, crowded with people devoted to the Exalted One. It would be well if the Exalted One were to have some monk perform a miracle by the power surpassing that of ordinary men. Then would this Nāḷanda of ours become even so much more devoted to the Exalted One.”

In reply the Exalted One said to him:

“But, Kevaṭṭa, this is not how I give instruction to the monks: ‘Come now, monks; perform a miracle, by the power surpassing that of ordinary men, for the lay folk clad in their garments of white!”

And a second time Kevaṭṭa made the same request to the Exalted One, and received a second time the same reply.

And a third time Kevaṭṭa, the young householder, addressed the Exalted One, and said:

“I do not wish to be importunate to the Exalted One. I only say that this Nāḷanda of ours is influential and prosperous, populous, crowded with people devoted to the Exalted One. It would be well if the Exalted One were to have some monk perform a miracle by the power surpassing that of ordinary men. Then this Nāḷanda of ours would become even so much more devoted to the Exalted One.”

“Kevaṭṭa, there are three sorts of miracles which I have made known to others, having myself understood and realized them. And what are the three? The miracle of psychic power, the miracle of telepathy, and the miracle of instruction.

“And what, Kevaṭṭa, is the miracle of psychic power?

“Here, Kevaṭṭa, a monk wields the various psychic powers: having been one, he becomes many and having been many, he becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space; he dives in and out of the earth as if it were water; he walks on water without sinking as if it were earth; sitting cross-legged he travels through space like a winged bird; with his hand he touches and strokes the sun and the moon, so mighty and powerful; he exercises mastery over the body as far as the Brahmā-world. Then someone who has faith and trust sees him doing these things.

“He then tells this to an unbeliever, saying: ‘Wonderful and marvelous, Sir, is the psychic power and potency of that recluse. For truly I saw him exercising that psychic power in various ways: having been one, he becomes many and having been many, he becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space; he dives in and out of the earth as if it were water; he walks on water without sinking as if it were earth; sitting cross-legged he travels through space like a winged bird; with his hand he touches and strokes the sun and the moon, so mighty and powerful; he exercises mastery over the body as far as the Brahmā-world.’

“Then that unbeliever might say to him: ‘Well, Sir! There is a certain charm called the Gandhāra Charm. It is by means of this charm that he performs all this.’

“Now what think you, Kevaṭṭa? Might not an unbeliever so say?”

“Yes, Sir, he might.”

“Well, Kevaṭṭa, it is because of this, seeing the danger of such miracles, I dislike, reject and despise them.

“And what, Kevaṭṭa, is the miracle of telepathy?

“Here, a monk reads the minds of other beings, of other people, reads their mental states, their thoughts and ponderings, and says: ‘That is how your mind is, that is how it inclines, that is in your heart.’ Then someone who has faith and trust sees him doing these things.

“He then tells this to an unbeliever, saying: ‘Wonderful and marvelous, Sir, is the telepathic power and potency of that recluse. For truly I saw him reading the minds of other beings, of other people, reading their mental states, their thoughts and ponderings, and saying: “That is how your mind is, that is how it inclines, that is in your heart.”’

“Then that unbeliever should say to him: ‘Well, Sir! There is a certain charm called the Manika Charm. It is by means of this charm that he performs all this.’

“Now what think you, Kevaṭṭa? Might not an unbeliever so say?”

“Yes, Sir, he might.”

“Well, Kevaṭṭa, it is because of this, seeing the danger of such miracles, I dislike, reject and despise them.

The Miracle of Instruction

“And what, Kevaṭṭa, is the miracle of instruction?

“Here, Kevaṭṭa, a monk teaches in this way:

“‘Reason in this way, do not reason in that way. Consider this, and not that. Get rid of this disposition, train yourself, and remain in that.’ This, Kevaṭṭa, is what is called ‘The miracle of instruction.’

“Further, Kevaṭṭa, a Tathāgata arises in the world, a worthy one, perfectly enlightened, endowed with clear knowledge and conduct, accomplished, a knower of the world, unsurpassed trainer of men to be tamed, teacher of devas and men, enlightened and exalted. Having realized by his own direct knowledge this world with its devas, its Māras, and its Brahmās, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its rulers and people, he makes it known to others. He teaches the Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, possessing meaning and phrasing; he reveals the holy life that is fully complete and purified.

“A householder, or a householder’s son, or one born into some other family, hears the Dhamma. Having heard the Dhamma, he gains faith in the Tathāgata. Endowed with such faith, he reflects: ‘The household life is crowded, a path of dust. Going forth is like the open air. It is not easy for one dwelling at home to lead the perfectly complete, perfectly purified holy life, bright as a polished conch. Let me then shave off my hair and beard, put on saffron robes, and go forth from home to homelessness.’

“After some time he abandons his accumulation of wealth, be it large or small; he abandons his circle of relatives, be it large or small; he shaves off his hair and beard, puts on saffron robes, and goes forth from home to homelessness.

“When he has thus gone forth, he lives restrained by the restraint of the Pātimokkha, possessed of proper behavior and resort. Having taken up the rules of training, he trains himself in them, seeing danger in the slightest faults. He comes to be endowed with wholesome bodily and verbal action, his livelihood is purified, and he is possessed of moral discipline. He guards the doors of his sense faculties, is endowed with mindfulness and clear comprehension, and is content.

The Small Section on Moral Discipline

“And how, Kevaṭṭa, is the monk possessed of moral discipline? Herein, Kevaṭṭa, having abandoned the destruction of life, the monk abstains from the destruction of life. He has laid down the rod and weapon and dwells conscientious, full of kindness, sympathetic for the welfare of all living beings. This pertains to his moral discipline.

“Having abandoned taking what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. Accepting and expecting only what is given, he lives in honesty with a pure mind. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Having abandoned incelibacy, he leads the holy life of celibacy. He dwells aloof and abstains from the village practice of sexual intercourse. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Having abandoned false speech, he abstains from falsehood. He speaks only the truth, he lives devoted to truth; trustworthy and reliable, he does not deceive anyone in the world. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Having abandoned slander, he abstains from slander. He does not repeat elsewhere what he has heard here in order to divide others from the people here, nor does he repeat here what he has heard elsewhere in order to divide these from the people there. Thus he is a reconciler of those who are divided and a promoter of friendships. Rejoicing, delighting, and exulting in concord, he speaks only words that are conducive to concord. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Having abandoned harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech. He speaks only such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, endearing, going to the heart, polite, amiable and agreeable to the manyfolk. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Having abandoned idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks at the right time, speaks what is factual and beneficial, speaks on the Dhamma and the Discipline. His words are worth treasuring; they are timely, backed by reasons, measured, and connected with the good. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“He abstains from damaging seed and plant life.

“He eats only in one part of the day, refraining from food at night and from eating at improper times.

“He abstains from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and from witnessing unsuitable shows.

“He abstains from wearing garlands, embellishing himself with scents, and beautifying himself with unguents.

“He abstains from high and luxurious beds and seats.

“He abstains from accepting gold and silver.

“He abstains from accepting uncooked grain, raw meat, women and girls, male and female slaves, goats and sheep, fowl and swine, elephants, cattle, horses and mares.

“He abstains from accepting fields and lands.

“He abstains from running messages and errands.

“He abstains from buying and selling.

“He abstains from dealing with false weights, false metals, and false measures.

“He abstains from the crooked ways of bribery, deception, and fraud.

“He abstains from mutilating, executing, imprisoning, robbery, plunder, and violence.

“This too pertains to his moral discipline.

The Intermediate Section on Moral Discipline

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, continually cause damage to seed and plant life—to plants propagated from roots, stems, joints, buds, and seeds—he abstains from damaging seed and plant life. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, enjoy the use of stored-up goods, such as stored-up food, drinks, garments, vehicles, bedding, scents, and comestibles—he abstains from the use of stored-up goods. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, attend unsuitable shows, such as:

  • shows featuring dancing, singing, or instrumental music;
  • theatrical performances;
  • narrations of legends;
  • music played by hand-clapping, cymbals and drums;
  • picture houses;
  • acrobatic performances;
  • combats of: elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, goats, rams, cocks and quails;
  • stick-fights, boxing and wrestling;
  • sham-fights, roll-calls, battle-arrays and regimental reviews—

he abstains from attending such unsuitable shows. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, indulge in the following games and recreations:

  • aṭṭhapada (a game played on an eight-row chessboard);
  • dasapada (a game played on a ten-row chessboard);
  • ākāsa (played by imagining a board in the air);
  • parihārapatha (“hopscotch,” a diagram is drawn on the ground and one has to jump in the allowable spaces avoiding the lines);
  • santika (“spillikins,” assembling the pieces in a pile, removing
  • and returning them without disturbing the pile);
  • khalika (dice games);
  • ghaṭika (hitting a short stick with a long stick);
  • salākahattha (a game played by dipping the hand in paint or dye, striking the ground or a wall, and requiring the participants to show the figure of an elephant, a horse etc.);
  • akkha (ball games);
  • paṅgacīra (blowing through toy pipes made of leaves);
  • vaṅkaka (ploughing with miniature ploughs);
  • mokkhacika (turning somersaults);
  • ciṅgulika (playing with paper windmills);
  • pattāḷaka (playing with toy measures);
  • rathaka (playing with toy chariots);
  • dhanuka (playing with toy bows);
  • akkharika (guessing at letters written in the air or on ones back);
  • manesika (guessing others’ thoughts);
  • yathāvajja (games involving mimicry of deformities)—

he abstains from such games that are a basis for negligence. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, enjoy the use of high and luxurious beds and seats, such as:

  • spacious couches;
  • thrones with animal figures carved on the supports;
  • long-haired coverlets;
  • multi-colored patchwork coverlets;
  • white woolen coverlets
  • woolen coverlets embroidered with flowers;
  • quilts stuffed with cotton;
  • woolen coverlets embroidered with animal figures;
  • woolen coverlets with hair on both sides or on one side;
  • bedspreads embroidered with gems;
  • silk coverlets;
  • dance-hall carpets;
  • elephant, horse, or chariot rugs;
  • rugs of antelope-skins;
  • choice spreads made of kadali-deer hides;
  • spreads with red awnings overhead;
  • couches with red cushions for head and feet—

he abstains from the use of such high and luxurious beds and seats. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, enjoy the use of such devices for embellishing and beautifying themselves as the following:

  • rubbing scented powders into the body
  • massaging with oils
  • bathing in perfumed water
  • kneading the limbs
  • mirrors
  • ointments
  • garlands
  • scents
  • unguents
  • face-powders
  • make-up
  • bracelets
  • head-bands
  • decorated walking sticks
  • ornamented medicine-tubes
  • rapiers
  • sunshades
  • embroidered sandals
  • turbans
  • diadems
  • yaktail whisks
  • and long-fringed white robes—

he abstains from the use of such devices for embellishment and beautification. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in frivolous chatter, such as:

  • talk about kings, thieves, and ministers of state
  • talk about armies, dangers, and wars
  • talk about food, drink, garments, and lodgings;
  • talk about garlands and scents;
  • talk about relations, vehicles, villages, towns, cities, and countries;
  • talk about women and talk about heroes;
  • street talk and talk by the well;
  • talk about those departed in days gone by;
  • rambling chit-chat;
  • speculations about the world and about the sea;
  • talk about gain and loss—

he abstains from such frivolous chatter. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in wrangling argumentation, (saying to one another):

‘You don’t understand this doctrine and discipline. It is I who understand this doctrine and discipline.’

‘How can you understand this doctrine and discipline?’

‘You’re practicing the wrong way. I’m practicing the right way.’

‘I’m being consistent. You’re inconsistent.’

‘What should have been said first you said last, what should have been said last you said first.’

‘What you took so long to think out has been confuted.’

‘Your doctrine has been refuted. You’re defeated. Go, try to save your doctrine, or disentangle yourself now if you can’—

he abstains from such wrangling argumentation. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in running messages and errands for kings, ministers of state, khattiyas, brahmins, householders, or youths, (who command them): ‘Go here, go there, take this, bring that from there’—he abstains from running such messages and errands. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in scheming, talking, hinting, belittling others, and pursuing gain with gain, he abstains from such kinds of scheming and talking. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

The Large Section on Moral Discipline

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as:

  • prophesying long life, prosperity etc., or the reverse, from the marks on a person’s limbs, hands, feet, etc.;
  • divining by means of omens and signs;
  • making auguries on the basis of thunderbolts and celestial portents;
  • interpreting ominous dreams;
  • telling fortunes from marks on the body;
  • making auguries from the marks on cloth gnawed by mice;
  • offering fire oblations;
  • offering oblations from a ladle;
  • offering oblations of husks, rice powder, rice grains, ghee and oil to the gods;
  • offering oblations from the mouth;
  • offering blood-sacrifices to the gods;
  • making predictions based on the fingertips;
  • determining whether the site for a proposed house or garden is propitious or not;
  • making predictions for officers of state;
  • laying demons in a cemetery;
  • laying ghosts;
  • knowledge of charms to be pronounced by one living in an earthen house;
  • snake charming;
  • the poison craft, scorpion craft, rat craft, bird craft, crow craft;
  • foretelling the number of years that a man has to live;
  • reciting charms to give protection from arrows;
  • reciting charms to understand the language of animals—

he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as interpreting the significance of the color, shape, and other features of the following items to determine whether they portend fortune or misfortune for their owners: gems, garments, staffs, swords, spears, arrows, bows, other weapons, women, men, boys, girls, slaves, slave-women, elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, cows, goats, rams, fowl, quails, lizards, earrings (or house-gables), tortoises, and other animals—he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as making predictions to the effect that:

  • the king will march forth;
  • the king will return;
  • our king will attack and the enemy king will retreat;
  • our enemy king will attack and our king will retreat;
  • our king will triumph and the enemy king will be defeated;
  • the enemy king will triumph and our king will be defeated;
  • thus there will be victory for one and defeat for the other—

he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as predicting:

  • there will be an eclipse of the moon, an eclipse of the sun, an eclipse of a constellation
  • the sun and the moon will go on their proper courses
  • there will be an aberration of the sun and moon
  • the constellations will go on their proper courses
  • there will be an aberration of a constellation
  • there will be a fall of meteors
  • there will be a skyblaze
  • there will be an earthquake
  • there will be an earth-roar
  • there will be a rising and setting, a darkening and brightening of the moon, sun, and constellations
  • such will be the result of the moon’s eclipse, such the result of the sun’s eclipse, (and so on down to) such will be the result of the rising and setting, darkening and brightening of the moon, sun, and constellations—

he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as predicting:

  • there will be abundant rain
  • there will be a drought
  • there will be a good harvest
  • there will be a famine
  • there will be security
  • there will be danger
  • there will be sickness
  • there will be health
  • or they earn their living by accounting, computation, calculation, the composing of poetry, and speculations about the world—

he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as:

  • arranging auspicious dates for marriages, both those in which the bride is brought home and those in which she is sent out
  • arranging auspicious dates for betrothals and divorces
  • arranging auspicious dates for the accumulation or expenditure of money
  • reciting charms to make people lucky or unlucky
  • rejuvenating the fetuses of abortive women
  • reciting spells to bind a man’s tongue, to paralyze his jaws, to make him lose control over his hands, or to bring on deafness
  • obtaining oracular answers to questions by means of a mirror, a girl, or a god
  • worshipping the sun
  • worshipping Mahābrahmā
  • bringing forth flames from the mouth
  • invoking the goddess of luck—

he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as:

  • promising gifts to deities in return for favors
  • fulfilling such promises
  • demonology
  • reciting spells after entering an earthen house
  • inducing virility and impotence
  • preparing and consecrating sites for a house
  • giving ceremonial mouthwashes and ceremonial bathing
  • offering sacrificial fires
  • administering emetics, purgatives, expectorants, and phlegmagogues
  • administering medicines through the ear and through the nose, administering ointments and counter-ointments, practicing fine surgery on the eyes and ears, practicing general surgery on the body, practicing as a children’s doctor—

he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

“Kevaṭṭa, the monk who is thus possessed of moral discipline sees no danger anywhere in regard to his restraint by moral discipline. Just as a head-anointed noble warrior who has defeated his enemies sees no danger anywhere from his enemies, so the monk who is thus possessed of moral discipline sees no danger anywhere in regard to his restraint by moral discipline. Endowed with this noble aggregate of moral discipline, he experiences within himself a blameless happiness. In this way, Kevaṭṭa, the monk is possessed of moral discipline.

Restraint of the Sense Faculties

“And how, Kevaṭṭa, does the monk guard the doors of his sense faculties? Herein, Kevaṭṭa, having seen a form with the eye, the monk does not grasp at the sign or the details. Since, if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye, evil unwholesome states such as covetousness and grief might assail him, he practices restraint, guards the faculty of the eye, and achieves restraint over the faculty of the eye. Having heard a sound with the ear … having smelled an odor with the nose … having tasted a flavor with the tongue … having touched a tangible object with the body … having cognized a mind-object with the mind, the monk does not grasp at the sign or the details. Since, if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the mind, evil unwholesome states such as covetousness and grief might assail him, he practices restraint, guards the faculty of the mind, and achieves restraint over the faculty of the mind. Endowed with this noble restraint of the sense faculties, he experiences within himself an unblemished happiness. In this way, Kevaṭṭa, the monk guards the doors of the sense faculties.

Mindfulness and Clear Comprehension

“And how, Kevaṭṭa, is the monk endowed with mindfulness and clear comprehension? Herein, Kevaṭṭa, in going forward and returning, the monk acts with clear comprehension. In looking ahead and looking aside, he acts with clear comprehension. In bending and stretching the limbs, he acts with clear comprehension. In wearing his robes and cloak and using his alms-bowl, he acts with clear comprehension. In eating, drinking, chewing, and tasting, he acts with clear comprehension. In defecating and urinating, he acts with clear comprehension. In going, standing, sitting, lying down, waking up, speaking, and remaining silent, he acts with clear comprehension. In this way, Kevaṭṭa, the monk is endowed with mindfulness and clear comprehension.

Contentment

“And how, Kevaṭṭa, is the monk content? Herein, Kevaṭṭa, a monk is content with robes to protect his body and almsfood to sustain his belly; wherever he goes he sets out taking only (his requisites) along with him. Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden, in the same way a monk is content with robes to protect his body and almsfood to sustain his belly; wherever he goes he sets out taking only (his requisites) along with him. In this way, Kevaṭṭa, the monk is content.

The Abandoning of the Hindrances

“Endowed with this noble aggregate of moral discipline, this noble restraint over the sense faculties, this noble mindfulness and clear comprehension, and this noble contentment, he resorts to a secluded dwelling—a forest, the foot of a tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a cremation ground, a jungle grove, the open air, a heap of straw. After returning from his alms-round, following his meals, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds his body erect, and sets up mindfulness before him.

“Having abandoned covetousness for the world, he dwells with a mind free from covetousness; he purifies his mind from covetousness. Having abandoned ill will and hatred, he dwells with a benevolent mind, sympathetic for the welfare of all living beings; he purifies his mind from ill will and hatred. Having abandoned dullness and drowsiness, he dwells perceiving light, mindful and clearly comprehending; he purifies his mind from dullness and drowsiness. Having abandoned restlessness and worry, he dwells at ease within himself, with a peaceful mind; he purifies his mind from restlessness and worry. Having abandoned doubt, he dwells as one who has passed beyond doubt, unperplexed about wholesome states; he purifies his mind from doubt.

“Kevaṭṭa, suppose a man were to take a loan and apply it to his business, and his business were to succeed, so that he could pay back his old debts and would have enough money left over to maintain a wife. He would reflect on this, and as a result he would become glad and experience joy.

“Again, Kevaṭṭa, suppose a man were to become sick, afflicted, gravely ill, so that he could not enjoy his food and his strength would decline. After some time he would recover from that illness and would enjoy his food and regain his bodily strength. He would reflect on this, and as a result he would become glad and experience joy.

“Again, Kevaṭṭa, suppose a man were locked up in a prison. After some time he would be released from prison, safe and secure, with no loss of his possessions. He would reflect on this, and as a result he would become glad and experience joy.

“Again, Kevaṭṭa, suppose a man were a slave, without independence, subservient to others, unable to go where he wants. After some time he would be released from slavery and gain his independence; he would no longer be subservient to others but a free man able to go where he wants. He would reflect on this, and as a result he would become glad and experience joy.

“Again, Kevaṭṭa, suppose a man with wealth and possessions were traveling along a desert road where food was scarce and dangers were many. After some time he would cross over the desert and arrive safely at a village which is safe and free from danger. He would reflect on this, and as a result he would become glad and experience joy.

“In the same way, Kevaṭṭa, when a monk sees that these five hindrances are unabandoned within himself, he regards that as a debt, as a sickness, as confinement in prison, as slavery, as a desert road.

“But when he sees that these five hindrances have been abandoned within himself, he regards that as freedom from debt, as good health, as release from prison, as freedom from slavery, as a place of safety.

“When he sees that these five hindrances have been abandoned within himself, gladness arises. When he is gladdened, rapture arises. When his mind is filled with rapture, his body becomes tranquil; tranquil in body, he experiences happiness; being happy, his mind becomes concentrated.

The First Jhāna

“Quite secluded from sense pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters and dwells in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought and filled with the rapture and happiness born of seclusion. He drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with this rapture and happiness born of seclusion, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this rapture and happiness.

“Kevaṭṭa, suppose a skilled bath attendant or his apprentice were to pour soap-powder into a metal basin, sprinkle it with water, and knead it into a ball, so that the ball of soap-powder be pervaded by moisture, encompassed by moisture, suffused with moisture inside and out, yet would not trickle. In the same way, Kevaṭṭa, the monk drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with the rapture and happiness born of seclusion, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this rapture and happiness. This, Kevaṭṭa, is what is called the miracle of instruction.

The Second Jhāna

“Further, Kevaṭṭa, with the subsiding of applied and sustained thought, the monk enters and dwells in the second jhāna, which is accompanied by internal confidence and unification of mind, is without applied and sustained thought, and is filled with the rapture and happiness born of concentration. He drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with this rapture and happiness born of concentration, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this rapture and happiness.

“Kevaṭṭa, suppose there were a deep lake whose waters welled up from below. It would have no inlet for water from the east, west, north, or south, nor would it be refilled from time to time with showers of rain; yet a current of cool water, welling up from within the lake, would drench, steep, saturate and suffuse the whole lake, so that there would be no part of that entire lake which is not suffused with the cool water. In the same way, Kevaṭṭa, the monk drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with the rapture and happiness born of concentration, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this rapture and happiness. This, Kevaṭṭa, is what is called the miracle of instruction.

The Third Jhāna

“Further, Kevaṭṭa, with the fading away of rapture, the monk dwells in equanimity, mindful and clearly comprehending, and experiences happiness with the body. Thus he enters and dwells in the third jhāna, of which the noble ones declare: ‘He dwells happily with equanimity and mindfulness.’ He drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with this happiness free from rapture, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this happiness.

“Kevaṭṭa, suppose in a lotus pond there were blue, white, or red lotuses that have been born in the water, grow in the water, and never rise up above the water, but flourish immersed in the water. From their tips to their roots they would be drenched, steeped, saturated, and suffused with cool water, so that there would be no part of those lotuses not suffused with cool water. In the same way, Kevaṭṭa, the monk drenches, steeps, saturates and suffuses his body with the happiness free from rapture, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this happiness. This, Kevaṭṭa, is what is called the miracle of instruction.

The Fourth Jhāna

“Further, Kevaṭṭa, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous passing away of joy and grief, the monk enters and dwells in the fourth jhāna, which is neither pleasant nor painful and contains mindfulness fully purified by equanimity. He sits suffusing his body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his entire body not suffused by a pure bright mind.

“Kevaṭṭa, suppose a man were to be sitting covered from the head down by a white cloth, so that there would be no part of his entire body not suffused by the white cloth. In the same way, Kevaṭṭa, the monk sits suffusing his body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his entire body not suffused by a pure bright mind. This, Kevaṭṭa, is what is called the miracle of instruction.

Insight Knowledge

“When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision. He understands thus: ‘This is my body, having material form, composed of the four primary elements, originating from father and mother, built up out of rice and gruel, impermanent, subject to rubbing and pressing, to dissolution and dispersion. And this is my consciousness, supported by it and bound up with it.’

“Kevaṭṭa, suppose there were a beautiful beryl gem of purest water, eight-faceted, well cut, clear, limpid, flawless, endowed with all excellent qualities. And through it there would run a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread. A man with keen sight, taking it in his hand, would reflect upon it thus: ‘This is a beautiful beryl gem of purest water, eight faceted, well cut, clear, limpid, flawless, endowed with all excellent qualities. And running through it there is this blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread.’ In the same way, Kevaṭṭa, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … the monk directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision and understands thus: ‘This is my body, having material form …. and this is my consciousness, supported by it and bound up with it.’ This, Kevaṭṭa, is what is called the miracle of instruction.

The Knowledge of the Destruction of the Defilements

“When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the destruction of the defilements. He understands as it really is: ‘This is suffering.’ He understands as it really is: ‘This is the origin of suffering.’ He understands as it really is: ‘This is the cessation of suffering.’ He understands as it really is: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’ He understands as it really is: ‘These are the defilements.’ He understands as it really is: ‘This is the origin of the defilements.’ He understands as it really is: ‘This is the cessation of the defilements.’ He understands as it really is: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of the defilements.’

“Knowing and seeing thus, his mind is liberated from the defilement of sensual desire, from the defilement of becoming, and from the defilement of ignorance. When it is liberated, the knowledge arises: ‘It is liberated.’ He understands: ‘Destroyed is birth, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is nothing further beyond this.’

“Kevaṭṭa, suppose in a mountain glen there were a lake with clear water, limpid and unsullied. A man with keen sight, standing on the bank, would see oyster-shells, sand and pebbles, and shoals of fish moving about and keeping still. He would think to himself: ‘This is a lake with clear water, limpid and unsullied, and there within it are oyster-shells, sand and pebbles, and shoals of fish moving about and keeping still.’

“In the same way, Kevaṭṭa, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright …. the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the destruction of the defilements. He understands as it really is: ‘This is suffering’ … He understands: ‘Destroyed is birth, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is nothing further beyond this.’ This, Kevaṭṭa, is what is called the miracle of instruction.

“So these, Kevaṭṭa, are the three miracles I have understood and realized myself, and made known to others.

A Visit to the Devas

“Once upon a time, Kevaṭṭa, a question occurred to a certain monk in this order of monks: ‘Where now do these four great elements—earth, water, fire, and wind—cease without remainder?’ So that monk, Kevaṭṭa, attained to such a state of concentration that the way leading to the deva-realms became clear to him.

“Then that monk, Kevaṭṭa, went up to the realm of the Four Great Kings; and said to the devas there: ‘Where, friends, do the four great elements—earth, water, fire, and wind—cease without remainder?

“And when he had asked them, the devas in the heaven of the Four Great Kings said to him: ‘Monk, we do not know that. But there are the Four Great Kings, more powerful and more glorious than we. They will know.’

[216–219] 69–“Then, Kevaṭṭa, that monk went to the Four Great Kings, [and put the same question, and was sent on, by a similar reply, to the Thirty-three Gods, who sent him on to their king, Sakka; who sent him on to the Yāma devas, who sent him on to their king, Suyāma; who sent him on to the Tusita devas, who sent him on to their king, Santusita; who sent him on to the Nimmāna-rati devas, who sent him on to their king, Sunimmita; who sent him on to the Paranimmita Vasavatti devas, who sent him on to their king, Vasavatti; who sent him on to the devas of the Brahmā-world.

“Then that monk, Kevaṭṭa, became so concentration that the way to the Brahmā-world became clear to him. And he drew near to the devas of the retinue of Brahmā, and said: ‘Where, friends, do the four great elements—earth, water, fire, and wind—cease without remainder?’

“And when he had thus spoken the devas of the retinue of Brahmā replied: ‘Monk, we do not know that. But there is Brahmā, the Great Brahmā, the Supreme One, the Mighty One, the All-seeing One, the Ruler, the Lord of all, the Controller, the Creator, the Chief of all, appointing each to his place, the Ancient of days, the Father of all that is and is to be. He is more powerful and more glorious than we. He will know.’

“‘Where then is that Great Brahmā now?’

“‘Monk, we know not when or how or why Brahmā appears. But, monk, when the signs of his coming appear, when a light appears and a radiance shines, then will He be manifest. For that is the portent of the manifestation of Brahmā when a light appears and a radiance shines.’

“And it was not long, Kevaṭṭa, before that Great Brahmā became manifest. And that monk drew near to him, and said: ‘Where, friend, do the four great elements—earth, water, fire, and wind—cease without remainder?’

“And when he had thus spoken that Great Brahmā said to him: ’monk, I am “the Great Brahmā, the Supreme, the Mighty, the All-seeing, the Ruler, the Lord of all, the Controller, the Creator, the Chief of all, appointing each to his place, the Ancient of days, the Father of all that is and is to be!’

“Then that monk said to Brahmā ‘I did not ask you, friend, as to whether you were indeed all that you now say. But I ask you where the four great elements—earth, water, fire, and wind cease, cease without remainder?’

“Then again, Kevaṭṭa, Brahmā gave the same reply. And that monk, yet a third time, asked his question to Brahmā as before.

“Then, Kevaṭṭa, the Great Brahmā took that monk by the arm, led him aside, and said:

‘These devas of the retinue of Brahmā, monk, believe that there is nothing I cannot see, nothing I have not understood, nothing I have not realized. Therefore I gave no answer in their presence. I do not know, monk, where those four great elements—earth, water, fire, and wind—cease without remainder. Therefore you, monk, have done wrong, have acted unwisely, in that, ignoring the Exalted One, you have undertaken this long search among others for an answer to this question. Go now, return to the Exalted One, ask him the question, and accept the answer he gives you.’

“Then, Kevaṭṭa, that monk, as quickly as a strong man could stretch or flex his arm, vanished from the Brahmā world, and approached me, paid homage to me, and sat down to one side. Seated, he said to me: ‘Where is it, Sir, that these four great elements—earth, water, fire, and wind—cease without remainder?’

“And when he had thus spoken, Kevaṭṭa, I answered him thus: ‘Long ago, monk, when sea-faring traders were setting sail on an ocean voyage, they took with them a land-sighting bird. And when the ship got out of sight of the shore they would let the land-sighting bird free. Such a bird would fly to the East, and to the South and to the West, and to the North, to the zenith, and to the intermediate points of the compass. And if anywhere on the horizon it caught sight of land, it would it fly there. But if all around, no land were visible, it would return to that ship. Just so, monk, having sought an answer to this question, and sought it in vain, even up to the Brahmā-world, you have come back to me. Now the question, monk, should not be asked as you have put it. Instead of asking where the four great elements, cease without remainder, you should have asked:

‘Where do earth, water, fire and air no footing find?
Where are long and short, small and great, fair and foul –
Where are “name-and-form” brought to an end?’

“And the answer is:

Consciousness that is signless, limitless, all-illuminating,
Then water, earth, fire, & wind find no footing,
Then long & short, small & large, pleasant & unpleasant –
Then “name-&-form” are all brought to an end.

With the cessation of viññāṇa [divided-knowing]
all this is brought to an end.’”

Thus spoke the Exalted One. And Kevaṭṭa, the young householder, pleased at heart, rejoiced at the spoken word.

Here ends the Kevaṭṭa Suttanta.

Source: https://legacy.suttacentral.net/en/dn11