Mahāsatipaṭṭhana Sutta DN 22

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Buddha
Buddha

Dīgha Nikāya

Mahāvagga

Mahāsatipaṭṭhana Sutta

22. Khotbah Panjang Tentang Landasan-landasan Perhatian

Demikianlah Yang Kudengar. Pada suatu ketika Sang Bhagavā sedang menetap di antara penduduk Kuru. Di sana terdapat sebuah pemukiman-pasar yang disebut Kammāsadhamma. Dan di sana Sang Bhagavā berkata kepada para bhikkhu: ‘Para bhikkhu!’ ‘Bhagavā’, mereka menjawab, dan Sang Bhagavā berkata:

‘Ada, para bhikkhu, satu jalan ini untuk memurnikan makhluk-makhluk, untuk mengatasi dukacita dan kesusahan, untuk melenyapkan kesakitan dan kesedihan, untuk memperoleh jalan benar, untuk mencapai Nibbāna:—yaitu, empat landasan perhatian.

‘Apakah empat ini? Di sini, para bhikkhu, seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani , tekun, dengan kesadaran jernih dan penuh perhatian, setelah menyingkirkan kerinduan dan kegelisahan terhadap dunia; ia berdiam merenungkan perasaan sebagai perasaan …; ia berdiam merenungkan pikiran sebagai pikiran; ia berdiam merenungkan objek-pikiran sebagai objek-pikiran, tekun, dengan kesadaran jernih dan penuh perhatian, setelah menyingkirkan kerinduan dan kegelisahan dunia.’

Perenungan jasmani

1. Perhatian Pada Pernafasan

‘Dan bagaimanakah, para bhikkhu, seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani? Di sini seorang bhikkhu, setelah pergi ke hutan, atau ke bawah pohon, atau ke tempat sunyi, duduk bersila, menegakkan tubuhnya, setelah menegakkan perhatian di depannya. Dengan penuh perhatian ia menarik nafas, dengan penuh perhatian ia mengembuskan nafas. Menarik nafas panjang, ia mengetahui bahwa ia menarik nafas panjang, dan mengembuskan nafas panjang, ia mengetahui bahwa ia mengembuskan nafas panjang. Menarik nafas pendek, ia mengetahui bahwa ia menarik nafas pendek, dan mengembuskan nafas pendek, ia mengetahui bahwa ia mengembuskan nafas pendek. Ia melatih dirinya, dengan berpikir: “Aku akan menarik nafas, menyadari seluruh jasmani.” Ia melatih dirinya, dengan berpikir: “Aku akan mengembuskan nafas, menyadari seluruh jasmani.” Ia melatih dirinya, dengan berpikir: “Aku akan menarik nafas, dengan menenangkan seluruh proses jasmani.” Ia melatih dirinya, dengan berpikir: “Aku akan mengembuskan nafas, dengan menenangkan seluruh proses jasmani.” Bagaikan seorang akrobatik terampil atau pembantunya, ketika melakukan putaran panjang, tahu bahwa ia melakukan putaran panjang, atau ketika melakukan putaran pendek, tahu bahwa ia melakukan putaran pendek, demikian pula seorang bhikkhu, dalam menarik nafas panjang, tahu bahwa ia menarik nafas panjang … dan demikianlah ia melatih dirinya, dengan berpikir: “Aku akan mengembuskan nafas, dengan menenangkan seluruh jasmani.”’

Pandangan terang

‘Demikianlah ia berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani secara internal, merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani secara eksternal, merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani secara internal dan eksternal. Ia berdiam merenungkan munculnya fenomena di dalam jasmani. Ia berdiam merenungkan lenyapnya fenomena di dalam jasmani. Ia berdiam merenungkan muncul dan lenyapnya fenomena di dalam jasmani. Atau, penuh perhatian bahwa “ada jasmani” muncul dalam dirinya hanya sejauh yang diperlukan bagi pengetahuan dan kesadaran. Dan ia berdiam tanpa bergantung, tidak melekat pada apapun di dunia ini. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, adalah bagaimana seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani.’

2. Empat Postur

‘Kemudian, seorang bhikkhu, ketika sedang berjalan, mengetahui bahwa ia sedang berjalan, ketika sedang berdiri, mengetahui bahwa ia sedang berdiri, ketika sedang duduk, mengetahui bahwa ia sedang duduk, ketika sedang berbaring, mengetahui bahwa ia sedang berbaring. Dalam cara bagaimanapun jasmaninya diposisikan, ia mengetahuinya sebagaimana adanya.

‘Demikianlah ia berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani secara internal, secara eksternal, dan secara internal maupun eksternal … Dan ia berdiam tanpa bergantung, tidak melekat pada apapun di dunia ini. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, adalah bagaimana seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani.’

3. Kesadaran Jernih

‘Kemudian, seorang bhikkhu, ketika berjalan maju atau mundur, sadar jernih atas apa yang sedang ia lakukan, ketika melihat ke depan atau ke belakang ia sadar jernih atas apa yang sedang ia lakukan, ketika menunduk dan menegakkan badan ia sadar jernih atas apa yang sedang ia lakukan, ketika membawa jubah dalam dan luarnya dan mangkuknya ia sadar atas apa yang sedang ia lakukan, ketika makan, minum, mengunyah dan menelan ia sadar jernih atas apa yang sedang ia lakukan, dalam buang air atau kecil ia sadar jernih atas apa yang sedang ia lakukan, ketika berjalan, berdiri, duduk, jatuh tertidur dan terjaga dari tidur, ketika berbicara atau berdiam diri, ia sadar jernih atas apa yang sedang ia lakukan.

‘Demikianlah ia berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani secara internal, secara eksternal, dan secara internal maupun eksternal … Dan ia berdiam tanpa bergantung, tidak melekat pada apapun di dunia ini. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, adalah bagaimana seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani.’

4. Perenungan Kejijikan: Bagian-bagian Tubuh

‘Kemudian, seorang bhikkhu memeriksa jasmani ini dari telapak kaki ke atas dan dari kulit kepala ke bawah, terbungkus oleh kulit dan dipenuhi kotoran: “Di dalam jasmani ini terdapat rambut-kepala, bulu-badan, kuku, gigi, kulit, daging, urat, tulang, sumsum, ginjal, jantung, hati, sekat rongga dada, limpa, paru-paru, selaput pengikat organ dalam, usus, isi perut, tinja, empedu, dahak, nanah, darah, keringat, lemak, air mata, minyak, ludah, ingus, cairan sendi, air kencing.” Bagaikan ada sebuah karung, yang terbuka di kedua ujungnya, penuh dengan berbagai jenis biji-bijian seperti beras-gunung, padi, kacang hijau, kacang merah, wijen, beras merah, dan seorang yang berpenglihatan baik membuka karung itu dan memeriksanya, dapat mengatakan: “Ini adalah beras-gunung, padi, kacang hijau, kacang merah, wijen, beras tanpa sekam”, demikian pula seorang bhikkhu memeriksa jasmani ini: “Di dalam jasmani ini terdapat rambut kepala … air kencing.”

‘Demikianlah ia berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani secara internal, secara eksternal, dan secara internal maupun eksternal … Dan ia berdiam tanpa bergantung, tidak melekat pada apapun di dunia ini. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, adalah bagaimana seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani.’

5. Empat Unsur

‘Kemudian, seorang bhikkhu memeriksa jasmani ini, bagaimanapun posisinya, dalam hal unsur-unsur: “Terdapat dalam jasmani ini, unsur-tanah, unsur-air, unsur-api, unsur-angin.” Bagaikan seorang tukang daging yang terampil atau pembantunya, setelah menyembelih seekor sapi, duduk di persimpangan jalan dengan daging yang telah dibagi dalam beberapa bagian, demikianlah seorang bhikkhu memeriksa jasmani ini … dalam hal unsur-unsur: “Terdapat dalam jasmani ini, unsur-tanah, unsur-air, unsur-api, unsur-angin.”

‘Demikianlah ia berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani secara internal … Dan ia berdiam tanpa bergantung, tidak melekat pada apapun di dunia ini. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, adalah bagaimana seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani.’
(6. Sembilan Perenungan Tanah Pemakaman)

‘Kemudian, seorang bhikkhu, seolah-olah ia melihat mayat yang dibuang di tanah pemakaman, satu, dua atau tiga hari setelah meninggal dunia, membengkak, berubah warna, membandingkan jasmani ini dengan mayat itu, berpikir: “Jasmani ini memiliki sifat yang sama, jasmani ini akan menjadi seperti mayat itu, jasmani ini tidak terbebas dari takdir itu.”

‘Demikianlah ia berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani secara internal, secara eksternal, dan secara internal maupun eksternal. Dan ia berdiam tanpa bergantung, tidak melekat pada apapun di dunia ini. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, adalah bagaimana seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani.’

‘Kemudian, seorang bhikkhu, seolah-olah ia melihat mayat di tanah pemakaman, dibuang, dimakan oleh burung gagak, elang atau hering, oleh anjing atau serigala, atau berbagai binatang lainnya, membandingkan jasmani ini dengan mayat itu, berpikir: “Jasmani ini memiliki sifat yang sama. Jasmani ini akan menjadi seperti mayat itu, jasmani ini tidak terbebas dari takdir itu.”

‘Kemudian, seorang bhikkhu, seolah-olah ia melihat mayat di tanah pemakaman, dibuang, kerangka tulang-belulang dengan daging dan darah, dirangkai oleh urat, … kerangka tulang-belulang tanpa daging berlumuran darah, dirangkai oleh urat, … kerangka tulang-belulang yang tanpa daging dan darah, dirangkai oleh urat, … tulang-belulang yang tersambung secara acak, berserakan di segala penjuru, tulang-lengan di sini, tulang-kaki di sana, tulang-kering di sini, tulang-paha di sana, tulang-panggul di sini, tulang-punggung di sini, tulang tengkorak di sana, membandingkan jasmani ini dengan mayat itu …

‘Kemudian, seorang bhikkhu, seolah-olah ia melihat mayat di tanah pemakaman, dibuang, tulangnya memutih, terlihat seperti kulit-kerang …, tulang-belulangnya menumpuk, setelah setahun …, tulang-belulangnya hancur menjadi bubuk, membandingkan jasmani ini dengan mayat itu, berpikir: “Jasmani ini memiliki sifat yang sama, jasmani ini akan menjadi seperti mayat itu, jasmani ini tidak terbebas dari takdir itu.”

Pandangan terang

‘Demikianlah ia berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani secara internal, merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani secara eksternal, berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani secara internal dan eksternal. Ia berdiam merenungkan munculnya fenomena dalam jasmani, merenungkan lenyapnya fenomena dalam jasmani, ia berdiam merenungkan muncul dan lenyapnya fenomena dalam jasmani. Atau, penuh perhatian bahwa “ada jasmani” muncul dalam dirinya hanya sejauh yang diperlukan bagi pengetahuan dan kesadaran. Dan ia berdiam tanpa bergantung, tidak melekat pada apapun di dunia ini. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, adalah bagaimana seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani.’

Perenungan perasaan

‘Dan bagaimanakah, para bhikkhu, seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan perasaan sebagai perasaan? Di sini, seorang bhikkhu yang sedang merasakan perasaan menyenangkan mengetahui bahwa ia sedang merasakan perasaan menyenangkan; merasakan perasaan menyakitkan, ia mengetahui bahwa ia sedang merasakan perasaan menyakitkan; merasakan perasaan yang bukan menyenangkan juga bukan menyakitkan ia mengetahui bahwa ia sedang merasakan perasaan yang bukan menyenangkan juga bukan menyakitkan; merasakan perasaan indria yang menyenangkan ia mengetahui bahwa ia sedang merasakan perasaan indria yang menyenangkan; merasakan perasaan non-indria yang menyenangkan ia mengetahui bahwa ia merasakan perasaan non-indria yang menyenangkan; merasakan perasaan indria yang menyakitkan …; merasakan perasaan non-indria yang menyakitkan …; merasakan perasaan indria yang bukan menyakitkan juga bukan menyenangkan …; merasakan perasaan non-indria yang bukan menyakitkan juga bukan menyenangkan ia mengetahui bahwa ia sedang merasakan perasaan non-indria yang bukan menyakitkan juga bukan menyenangkan.’

Pandangan terang

‘Demikianlah ia berdiam merenungkan perasaan sebagai perasaan secara internal. Ia merenungkan perasaan sebagai perasaan secara eksternal … Ia berdiam merenungkan munculnya fenomena dalam perasaan, lenyapnya fenomena serta muncul dan lenyapnya fenomena dalam perasaan. Atau, penuh perhatian bahwa “ada perasaan” muncul dalam dirinya hanya sejauh yang diperlukan bagi pengetahuan dan kesadaran. Dan ia berdiam tanpa bergantung, tidak melekat pada apapun di dunia ini. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, adalah bagaimana seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan perasaan sebagai perasaan.’

Perenungan pikiran

‘Dan bagaimanakah, para bhikkhu, seorang bhikkhu berrdiam merenungkan pikiran sebagai pikiran? Di sini, seorang bhikkhu mengetahui pikiran penuh nafsu sebagai penuh nafsu, pikiran yang bebas dari nafsu sebagai pikiran yang bebas dari nafsu; pikiran membenci sebagai pikiran membenci, pikiran yang bebas dari kebencian sebagai pikiran yang bebas dari kebencian; pikiran yang terdelusi sebagai pikiran yang terdelusi, pikiran yang tidak terdelusi sebagai pikiran yang tidak terdelusi; pikiran mengerut sebagai pikiran mengerut, pikiran kacau sebagai pikiran kacau, pikiran terkembang sebagai pikiran terkembang, pikiran yang tidak terkembang sebagai pikiran yang tidak terkembang; pikiran yang terlampaui sebagai pikiran terlampaui, pikiran tidak terlampaui sebagai pikiran tidak terlampaui; pikiran terkonsentrasi sebagai pikiran terkonsentrasi, pikiran tidak terkonsentrasi sebagai pikiran tidak terkonsentrasi; pikiran terbebas sebagai pikiran terbebas, pikiran tidak terbebas sebagai pikiran tidak terbebas.’

Pandangan terang

‘Demikianlah ia berdiam merenungkan pikiran sebagai pikiran secara internal. Ia merenungkan pikiran sebagai pikiran secara eksternal … Ia berdiam merenungkan munculnya fenomena dalam pikiran … Atau, penuh perhatian bahwa “ada pikiran” muncul dalam dirinya hanya sejauh yang diperlukan bagi pengetahuan dan kesadaran. Dan ia berdiam terlepas, tidak menggenggam pada apapun di dunia ini. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, adalah bagaimana seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan pikiran sebagai pikiran.’

Perenungan objek-objek pikiran

‘Dan bagaimanakah, para bhikkhu, seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sebagai objek-objek pikiran?’

1. Lima Rintangan

‘Di sini, seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sebagai objek-objek pikiran sehubungan dengan lima rintangan. Bagaimanakah ia melakukannya? Di sini, para bhikkhu, jika keinginan-indria hadir dalam dirinya, seorang bhikkhu mengetahui bahwa keinginan-indria hadir. Jika keinginan-indria tidak ada dalam dirinya, seorang bhikkhu mengetahui bahwa keinginan-indria tidak ada. Dan ia mengetahui bagaimana keinginan-indria yang belum muncul itu muncul, dan ia mengetahui bagaimana menyingkirkan keinginan-indria yang telah muncul, dan ia mengetahui bagaimana ketidak-munculan di masa depan atas keinginan-indria yang telah disingkirkan.

‘Jika kebencian hadir dalam dirinya, seorang bhikkhu mengetahui bahwa kebencian hadir … Dan ia mengetahui bagaimana ketidak-munculan di masa depan atas kebencian yang telah disingkirkan.

‘Jika ketumpulan dan kelambanan hadir dalam dirinya, seorang bhikkhu mengetahui bahwa ketumpulan dan kelambanan hadir … Dan ia mengetahui bagaimana ketidak-munculan di masa depan atas ketumpulan dan kelambanan yang telah disingkirkan.

‘Jika kekhawatiran dan kegelisahan hadir dalam dirinya, seorang bhikkhu mengetahui bahwa kekhawatiran dan kegelisahan hadir … Dan ia mengetahui bagaimana ketidak-munculan di masa depan atas kekhawatiran dan kegelisahan yang telah disingkirkan.

‘Jika keragu-raguan hadir dalam dirinya, seorang bhikkhu mengetahui bahwa keragu-raguan hadir. Jika keragu-raguan tidak ada dalam dirinya, ia mengetahui bahwa keragu-raguan tidak ada. Dan ia mengetahui bagaimana keragu-raguan yang belum muncul itu muncul, dan ia mengetahui bagaimana menyingkirkan keragu-raguan yang telah muncul, dan ia mengetahui bagaimana ketidak-munculan di masa depan atas keragu-raguan yang telah disingkirkan.

Pandangan terang

‘Demikianlah ia berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sebagai objek-objek pikiran secara internal … Ia berdiam merenungkan munculnya fenomena dalam objek-objek pikiran … Atau, penuh perhatian bahwa “ada objek-objek pikiran” muncul dalam dirinya hanya sejauh yang diperlukan bagi pengetahuan dan kesadaran. Dan ia berdiam terlepas, tidak menggenggam pada apapun di dunia ini. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, adalah bagaimana seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sebagai objek-objek pikiran sehubungan dengan lima rintangan.’

2. Lima Kelompok Unsur

‘Kemudian, para bhikkhu, seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sehubungan dengan lima kelompok unsur kemelekatan. Bagaimanakah ia melakukannya? Di sini, seorang bhikkhu berpikir: “Demikianlah bentuk, demikianlah munculnya bentuk, demikianlah lenyapnya bentuk; demikianlah perasaan, demikianlah munculnya perasaan, demikianlah lenyapnya perasaan; demikianlah persepsi, demikianlah munculnya persepsi, demikianlah lenyapnya persepsi; demikianlah bentukan-bentukan pikiran, demikianlah munculnya bentukan-bentukan pikiran, demikianlah lenyapnya bentukan-bentukan pikiran; demikianlah kesadaran, demikianlah munculnya kesadaran, demikianlah lenyapnya kesadaran.’

Pandangan terang

‘Demikianlah ia berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sebagai objek-objek pikiran secara internal … Dan ia berdiam terlepas, tidak menggenggam pada apapun di dunia ini. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, adalah bagaimana seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sebagai objek-objek pikiran sehubungan dengan lima kelompok unsur kemelekatan.’

3. Enam Landasan Indria Internal dan Eksternal

‘Kemudian, para bhikkhu, seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sehubungan dengan enam landasan-indria internal dan eksternal. Bagaimanakah ia melakukannya? Di sini seorang bhikkhu mengetahui mata, mengetahui objek-objek penglihatan, dan ia mengetahui belenggu apapun yang muncul dengan bergantung pada kedua hal ini. Dan ia mengetahui bagaimana belenggu yang belum muncul itu muncul, dan ia mengetahui bagaimana melepaskan belenggu yang telah muncul, dan ia mengetahui bagaimana ketidak-munculan di masa depan atas belenggu yang telah dilepaskan itu. Ia mengetahui telinga dan suara-suara … Ia mengetahui hidung dan bau-bauan … Ia mengetahui badan dan objek-objek sentuhan … Ia mengetahui pikiran dan mengetahui objek-objek pikiran, dan ia mengetahui belenggu apapun yang muncul bergantung pada kedua hal ini. Dan ia mengetahui bagaimana belenggu yang belum muncul itu muncul, dan ia mengetahui bagaimana melepaskan belenggu yang telah muncul, dan ia mengetahui bagaimana ketidak-munculan di masa depan atas belenggu yang telah dilepaskan itu.

Pandangan terang

‘Demikianlah ia berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sebagai objek-objek pikiran secara internal … Dan ia berdiam terlepas, tidak menggenggam pada apapun di dunia ini. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, adalah bagaimana seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sebagai objek-objek pikiran sehubungan dengan enam landasan indria internal dan eksternal.’

4. Tujuh Faktor Penerangan Sempurna

‘Kemudian, para bhikkhu, seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sehubungan dengan tujuh faktor penerangan sempurna. Bagaimanakah ia melakukannya? Di sini, para bhikkhu, jika faktor penerangan sempurna perhatian hadir dalam dirinya, seorang bhikkhu mengetahui kehadirannya. Jika faktor penerangan sempurna perhatian tidak hadir dalam dirinya, ia mengetahui ketidak-hadirannya. Dan ia mengetahui bagaimana faktor penerangan sempurna perhatian yang belum muncul itu muncul, dan ia mengetahui bagaimana kesempurnaan dari pengembangan faktor penerangan sempurna perhatian itu muncul. Jika faktor penerangan sempurna penyelidikan-kondisi-kondisi hadir dalam dirinya … Jika faktor penerangan sempurna kegigihan hadir dalam dirinya … Jika faktor penerangan sempurna kegembiraan hadir dalam dirinya … Jika faktor penerangan sempurna ketenangan hadir dalam dirinya … Jika faktor penerangan sempurna konsentrasi hadir dalam dirinya … jika faktor penerangan sempurna keseimbangan hadir dalam dirinya, seorang bhikkhu mengetahui kehadirannya. Jika faktor penerangan sempurna keseimbangan tidak hadir dalam dirinya, ia mengetahui ketidak-hadirannya. Dan ia mengetahui bagaimana faktor penerangan sempurna keseimbangan yang belum muncul itu muncul, dan ia mengetahui bagaimana kesempurnaan dari pengembangan faktor penerangan sempurna keseimbangan itu muncul.

Pandangan terang

‘Demikianlah ia berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sebagai objek-objek pikiran secara internal … Dan ia berdiam terlepas, tidak menggenggam pada apapun di dunia ini. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, adalah bagaimana seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sebagai objek-objek pikiran sehubungan dengan tujuh faktor penerangan sempurna.’

5. Empat Kebenaran Mulia

‘Kemudian, para bhikkhu, seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sehubungan dengan Empat Kebenaran Mulia. Bagaimanakah ia melakukannya? Di sini, seorang bhikkhu mengetahui sebagaimana adanya: “Ini adalah penderitaan”; ia mengetahui sebagaimana adanya: “Ini adalah asal-mula penderitaan”; ia mengetahui sebagaimana adanya: “Ini adalah lenyapnya penderitaan”; ia mengetahui sebagaimana adanya: “Ini adalah jalan menuju lenyapnya penderitaan.”

’Dan apakah, para bhikkhu, Kebenaran Mulia Penderitaan? Kelahiran adalah penderitaan, penuaan adalah penderitaan, kematian adalah penderitaan, dukacita adalah penderitaan, ratapan adalah penderitaan, kesakitan adalah penderitaan, kesedihan dan kesusahan adalah penderitaan. Berkumpul dengan yang tidak dicintai adalah penderitaan, berpisah dari yang dicintai adalah penderitaan, tidak mendapatkan apa yang diinginkan adalah penderitaan. Singkatnya, lima kelompok unsur kemelekatan adalah penderitaan.

‘Dan apakah, para bhikkhu, kelahiran? Makhluk apapun juga, kelompok makhluk apapun juga, ada kelahiran, penjelmaan, kedatangan, kemunculan kelompok-kelompok unsur, mendapatkan enam landasan. Itu, para bhikkhu, adalah yang disebut kelahiran.

‘Dan apakah penuaan? Makhluk apa pun juga, kelompok makhluk apapun juga, mengalami penuaan, jompo, gigi tanggal, rambut memutih, kulit keriput, mengerut seiring usia, indria-indria melemah, itu, para bhikkhu, disebut penuaan.

‘Dan apakah kematian? Makhluk apa pun juga, kelompok makhluk apapun juga, ada mengalami kematian, musnah, terputus, lenyap, meninggal dunia, sekarat, berakhir, terputusnya kelompok-kelompok unsur, lepasnya jasmani, itu, para bhikkhu, disebut kematian.

‘Dan apakah dukacita? Ketika, karena kemalangan apapun juga, seseorang terpengaruh oleh sesuatu yang bersifat menyakitkan, berduka, berkabung, bersusah hati, kesedihan, kesengsaraan, itu, para bhikkhu, disebut dukacita.

‘Dan apakah ratapan? Ketika, karena kemalangan apapun juga, seseorang terpengaruh oleh sesuatu yang bersifat menyakitkan dan menjadi menangis, mengeluh, meraung karena sedih, meratap, itu, para bhikkhu, disebut ratapan.

‘Dan apakah kesakitan? Perasaan sakit apapun pada jasmani, perasaan tidak menyenangkan pada jasmani, perasaan sakit atau tidak menyenangkan yang muncul dari kontak jasmani, itu, para bhikkhu, disebut kesakitan.

‘Dan apakah kesedihan? Perasaan sakit apapun pada pikiran, perasaan tidak menyenangkan pada pikiran, perasaan sakit atau tidak menyenangkan yang muncul dari kontak pikiran, itu, para bhikkhu, disebut kesedihan.

‘Dan apakah kesusahan? Ketika, karena kemalangan apapun juga, seseorang terpengaruh oleh sesuatu yang bersifat menyakitkan, bersusah hati, kesusahan besar, didera oleh kesusahan, oleh kesusahan besar, itu, para bhikkhu, disebut kesusahan.

‘Dan apakah, para bhikkhu, berkumpul dengan yang tidak dicintai? Di sini, siapapun yang tidak diinginkan, tidak disukai, objek-penglihatan, bau-bauan, rasa kecapan, objek sentuhan atau objek pikiran yang tidak menyenangkan, atau siapapun yang bertemu dengan orang yang mengharapkan kemalangannya, orang yang mengharapkan kecelakaannya, ketidak-nyamanannya, ketidak-amanannya, yang dengannya mereka berkumpul, bergaul, berhubungan, bergabung, itu, para bhikkhu, disebut berkumpul dengan yang tidak dicintai.

‘Dan apakah, para bhikkhu, berpisah dengan yang dicintai? Di sini, siapapun yang diinginkan, disukai, objek-penglihatan, bau-bauan, rasa kecapan, objek sentuhan atau objek pikiran yang menyenangkan, atau siapapun yang bertemu dengan orang yang mengharapkan kesejahteraannya, orang yang mengharapkan kebaikannya, kenyamanannya, keamanannya, ibu atau ayah atau saudara laki-laki atau perempuan atau sanak saudara atau sahabat atau kerabat sedarah, dan kemudian direnggut dari kebersamaan, pergaulan, hubungan, gabungan demikian, itu, para bhikkhu, disebut berpisah dari yang dicintai.

‘Dan apakah tidak mendapatkan apa yang diinginkan? Dalam diri makhluk-makhluk yang mengalami kelahiran, para bhikkhu, keinginan ini muncul: “Oh, sendainya kita tidak mengalami kelahiran, seandainya kita tidak dilahirkan!” Tetapi hal ini tidak mungkin dicapai hanya dengan menginginkan. Ini adalah tidak mendapatkan apa yang diinginkan. Dalam diri makhluk-makhluk yang mengalami penuaan, penyakit, dukacita, ratapan, kesakitan, kesedihan dan kesusahan muncul keinginan ini: “Oh, seandainya kita tidak mengalami penuaan, …, kesusahan, seandainya kita tidak bertemu dengan hal-hal ini!” Tetapi hal-hal ini tidak mungkin dicapai hanya dengan menginginkan. Ini adalah tidak mendapatkan apa yang diinginkan.

‘Dan bagaimanakah, para bhikkhu, singkatnya, lima kelompok unsur kemelekatan adalah penderitaan? Yaitu sebagai berikut: kelompok unsur kemelekatan bentuk, kelompok unsur kemelekatan perasaan, kelompok unsur kemelekatan persepsi, kelompok unsur kemelekatan bentukan-bentukan pikiran, kelompok unsur kemelekatan kesadaran. Ini adalah, singkatnya, lima kelompok unsur kemelekatan adalah penderitaan. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, disebut Kebenaran Mulia Penderitaan.

‘Dan apakah, para bhikkhu, Kebenaran Mulia Asal-mula Penderitaan? Yaitu, ketagihan yang memunculkan kelahiran, yang bergabung dengan kesenangan dan nafsu, mencari kenikmatan baru di sana-sini: dengan kata lain ketagihan akan kenikmatan-indria, ketagihan akan penjelmaan, dan ketagihan akan tanpa-penjelmaan.

‘Dan di manakah ketagihan ini muncul dan mengokohkan dirinya? Di manapun di dunia ini terdapat hal-hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, di sana ketagihan ini muncul dan mengokohkan dirinya.

‘Dan apakah di dunia ini hal-hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati? Mata di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, telinga …, hidung …, lidah …, badan …, pikiran di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, dan di sana ketagihan ini muncul dan mengokohkan dirinya. Pemandangan-pemandangan, suara-suara, bau-bauan, rasa-kecapan, objek-objek sentuhan, objek-objek pikiran di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, dan di sana ketagihan ini muncul dan mengokohkan dirinya.

‘Kesadaran-mata, kesadaran-telinga, kesadaran-hidung, kesadaran-lidah, kesadaran-badan, kesadaran-pikiran di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, dan di sana ketagihan ini muncul dan mengokohkan dirinya.

‘Kontak-mata, kontak-telinga, kontak-hidung, kontak-lidah, kontak-badan, kontak-pikiran di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, dan di sana ketagihan ini muncul dan mengokohkan dirinya.

‘Perasaan yang muncul dari kontak-mata, kontak-telinga, kontak-hidung, kontak-lidah, kontak-badan, kontak-pikiran di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, dan di sana ketagihan ini muncul dan mengokohkan dirinya.

‘Persepsi penglihatan, suara-suara, bau-bauan, rasa-kecapan, objek-objek sentuhan, objek-objek pikiran di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, dan di sana ketagihan ini muncul dan mengokohkan dirinya.

‘Kehendak sehubungan dengan penglihatan, suara-suara, bau-bauan, rasa-kecapan, objek-objek sentuhan, objek-objek pikiran di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, dan di sana ketagihan ini muncul dan mengokohkan dirinya.

‘Keinginan akan pemandangan-pemandangan, suara-suara, bau-bauan, rasa-kecapan, objek-objek sentuhan, objek-objek pikiran di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, dan di sana ketagihan ini muncul dan mengokohkan dirinya.

‘Pemikiran yang tertuju pada pemandangan-pemandangan, suara-suara, bau-bauan, rasa-kecapan, objek-objek sentuhan, objek-objek pikiran di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, dan di sana ketagihan ini muncul dan mengokohkan dirinya.

‘Pertimbangan yang tertuju pada pemandangan-pemandangan, suara-suara, bau-bauan, rasa-kecapan, objek-objek sentuhan, objek-objek pikiran di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, dan di sana keinginan ini muncul dan mengokohkan dirinya. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, disebut Kebenaran Mulia Asal-mula Penderitaan.

‘Dan apakah, para bhikkhu, Kebenaran Mulia Lenyapnya Penderitaan? Yaitu peluruhan total dan padamnya ketagihan ini, melepaskan dan meninggalkan, kebebasan darinya, terlepas darinya. Dan bagaimanakah ketagihan ini ditinggalkan, bagaimanakah lenyapnya ini terjadi?

‘Di manapun di dunia ini terdapat hal-hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, di sana lenyapnya ini terjadi. Dan apakah di dunia ini hal-hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati?

‘Mata di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, telinga …, hidung …, lidah …, badan …, pikiran di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, dan di sanalah ketagihan ditinggalkan, di sanalah lenyapnya terjadi.

‘Kesadaran-mata, kesadaran-telinga, kesadaran-hidung, kesadaran-lidah, kesadaran-badan, kesadaran-pikiran di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, dan di sanalah ketagihan ditinggalkan, di sanalah lenyapnya terjadi.

‘Pemandangan-pemandangan, suara-suara, bau-bauan, rasa-kecapan, objek-objek sentuhan, objek-objek pikiran di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, dan di sanalah ketagihan ditinggalkan, di sanalah lenyapnya terjadi.

Kontak-mata, kontak-telinga, kontak-hidung, kontak-lidah, kontak-badan, kontak-pikiran …; Persepsi penglihatan, suara-suara, bau-bauan, rasa-kecapan, objek-objek sentuhan, objek-objek pikiran …; kehendak sehubungan dengan penglihatan, suara-suara, bau-bauan, rasa-kecapan, objek-objek sentuhan, objek-objek pikiran …; Keinginan akan pemandangan-pemandangan, suara-suara, bau-bauan, rasa-kecapan, objek-objek sentuhan, objek-objek pikiran …; pemikiran yang tertuju pada pemandangan-pemandangan, suara-suara, bau-bauan, rasa-kecapan, objek-objek sentuhan, objek-objek pikiran …; pertimbangan yang tertuju pada pemandangan-pemandangan, suara-suara, bau-bauan, rasa-kecapan, objek-objek sentuhan, dan objek-objek pikiran di dunia ini adalah hal yang menyenangkan dan dapat dinikmati, dan di sanalah ketagihan ditinggalkan, di sanalah lenyapnya terjadi. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, disebut Kebenaran Mulia Lenyapnya Penderitaan.

‘Dan apakah, para bhikkhu, Kebenaran Mulia Jalan Praktik Menuju Lenyapnya Penderitaan? Yaitu, Jalan Mulia Berunsur Delapan, yaitu: Pandangan Benar, Pemikiran Benar, Ucapan Benar, Perbuatan Benar, Penghidupan Benar, Usaha Benar, Perhatian Benar, Konsentrasi Benar.

‘Dan apakah, para bhikkhu, Pandangan Benar? yaitu, para bhikkhu, pengetahuan tentang penderitaan, pengetahuan tentang asal-mula penderitaan, pengetahuan tentang lenyapnya penderitaan, dan pengetahuan tentang jalan praktik menuju lenyapnya penderitaan. Ini disebut Pandangan Benar.

‘Dan apakah, para bhikkhu, Pemikiran Benar? Pemikiran meninggalkan keduniawian, pemikiran ketidak-bencian, pemikiran ketidak-kejaman. Ini, para bhikkhu, disebut Pemikiran Benar.

‘Dan apakah, para bhikkhu, Ucapan Benar? Menghindari berbohong, menghindari fitnah, menghindari ucapan kasar, menghindari kata-kata yang tidak berguna. Ini disebut Ucapan Benar.

‘Dan apakah, para bhikkhu, Perbuatan Benar? Menghindari pembunuhan, Menghindari mengambil apa yang tidak diberikan, menghindari melakukan hubungan seksual yang salah. Ini disebut Perbuatan Benar.

‘Dan apakah, para bhikkhu, Penghidupan Benar? Di sini, para bhikkhu, seorang Siswa Ariya, setelah meninggalkan penghidupan salah, mempertahankan hidupnya dengan penghidupan benar.

‘Dan apakah, para bhikkhu, Usaha Benar? Di sini, para bhikkhu, seorang bhikkhu membangkitkan kehendak, mengerahkan daya upaya, menggerakkan usaha, mengerahkan pikirannya dan berusaha untuk mencegah munculnya kondisi pikiran tidak bermanfaat yang belum muncul. Ia membangkitkan kehendak … dan berusaha untuk mengatasi kondisi pikiran tidak bermanfaat yang telah muncul. Ia membangkitkan kehendak … dan berusaha untuk memunculkan kondisi pikiran bermanfaat yang belum muncul. Ia membangkitkan kehendak, mengerahkan daya upaya, menggerakkan usaha, mengerahkan pikirannya dan berusaha untuk mempertahankan kondisi pikiran bermanfaat yang telah muncul, tidak membiarkannya memudar, menumbuhkan lebih besar, hingga sempurna dalam pengembangan. Ini disebut Usaha Benar.

‘Dan apakah, para bhikkhu, Perhatian Benar? Di sini, para bhikkhu, seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan jasmani sebagai jasmani, tekun, sadar jernih dan penuh perhatian, setelah menyingkirkan segala kerinduan dan kegelisahan terhadap dunia; ia berdiam merenungkan perasaan sebagai perasaan …; ia berdiam merenungkan pikiran sebagai pikiran …; ia berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sebagai objek-objek pikiran, tekun, sadar jernih dan penuh perhatian, setelah menyingkirkan segala kerinduan dan kegelisahan terhadap dunia. Ini disebut Perhatian Benar.

‘Dan apakah, para bhikkhu, Konsentrasi Benar? Di sini, seorang bhikkhu, terlepas dari keinginan-indria, terlepas dari kondisi pikiran tidak bermanfaat, memasuki dan berdiam dalam jhāna pertama, yang disertai dengan pemikiran dan pertimbangan yang muncul dari keterlepasan, dipenuhi dengan kegembiraan dan kebahagiaan. Dan dengan melenyapkan pemikiran dan pertimbangan, dengan mencapai ketenangan dan keterpusatan pikiran, ia memasuki dan berdiam dalam jhāna kedua, yang tanpa pemikiran dan pertimbangan, yang muncul dari konsentrasi, dipenuhi dengan kegembiraan dan kebahagiaan. Dan dengan meluruhnya kegembiraan, dengan tetap tidak terganggu, penuh perhatian dan sadar jernih, ia mengalami dalam dirinya apa yang dikatakan oleh Para Mulia: “Bahagialah ia yang berdiam dalam keseimbangan dan perhatian”, ia memasuki jhāna ketiga. Dan, setelah meninggalkan kenikmatan dan kesakitan, dan dengan lenyapnya kegembiraan dan kesedihan sebelumnya, ia memasuki dan berdiam dalam jhāna keempat, yang melampaui kenikmatan dan kesakitan, dan dimurnikan oleh keseimbangan dan perhatian. Ini disebut Konsentrasi Benar. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, disebut jalan praktik menuju lenyapnya penderitaan.

Pandangan terang

‘Demikianlah ia berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sebagai objek-objek pikiran secara internal, merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sebagai objek-objek pikiran secara eksternal, berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sebagai objek-objek pikiran secara internal dan eksternal. Ia berdiam merenungkan munculnya fenomena dalam objek-objek pikiran, merenungkan lenyapnya fenomena dalam objek-objek pikiran, ia berdiam merenungkan muncul dan lenyapnya fenomena dalam objek-objek pikiran. Atau, penuh perhatian bahwa “ada objek-objek pikiran” muncul dalam dirinya hanya sejauh yang diperlukan bagi pengetahuan dan kesadaran. Dan ia berdiam tanpa bergantung, tidak melekat pada apapun di dunia ini. Dan itu, para bhikkhu, adalah bagaimana seorang bhikkhu berdiam merenungkan objek-objek pikiran sebagai objek-objek pikiran sehubungan dengan Empat Kebenaran Mulia.’

Kesimpulan

‘Siapapun, para bhikkhu, yang mempraktikkan Empat Landasan Perhatian ini selama tujuh tahun dapat mengharapkan satu dari dua hasil ini: apakah Kearahattaan dalam kehidupan ini atau, jika masih ada beberapa kekotoran tersisa, mencapai kondisi Yang-Tidak-Kembali. Jangankan tujuh tahun—siapapun yang mempraktikkannya selama enam tahun …, lima tahun …, empat tahun …, tiga tahun …, dua tahun …, satu tahun dapat mengharapkan satu dari dua hasil …; jangankan satu tahun—siapapun yang mempraktikkannya selama tujuh bulan …, enam bulan …, lima bulan …, empat bulan …, tiga bulan …, dua bulan …, satu bulan …, setengah bulan dapat mengharapkan satu dari dua hasil …; jangankan setengah bulan—Siapapun, yang mempraktikkan Empat Landasan Perhatian ini selama tujuh hari dapat mengharapkan satu dari dua hasil ini: apakah Kearahattaan dalam kehidupan ini atau, jika masih ada beberapa kekotoran tersisa, mencapai kondisi Yang-Tidak-Kembali.

‘Dikatakan: “Ada, para bhikkhu, satu jalan ini untuk memurnikan makhluk-makhluk, untuk mengatasi dukacita dan kesusahan, untuk melenyapkan kesakitan dan kesedihan, untuk memperoleh jalan yang benar untuk mencapai Nibbāna:—yaitu, empat landasan perhatian”, dan untuk alasan inilah hal tersebut dikatakan.’

Demikianlah khotbah Sang Bhagavā dan para bhikkhu senang dan gembira mendengar kata-kata Beliau.

Sumber ini diambil dari: https://legacy.suttacentral.net/id/dn22

Long Discourses

Great Chapter

22. The Long Discourse about the Ways of Attending to Mindfulness

Summary

Thus I heard: at one time the Gracious One was dwelling amongst the Kurus near a market town of the Kurus named Kammāssadamma.

There the Gracious One addressed the monks (saying): “Monks!” “Venerable Sir!” those monks replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:

“This is a one-way path, monks, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of grief and lamentation, for the extinction of pain and sorrow, for attaining the right way, for the direct realisation of Nibbāna, that is to say, the four ways of attending to mindfulness.

Which four?

Here, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

He dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

He dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

He dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

The Summary is Finished

Contemplation of the Body

The Section about In-breathing and Out-breathing

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body?

Here, monks, a monk who has gone to the wilderness, or has gone to the root of a tree, or has gone to an empty place, sits down. After folding his legs crosswise, setting his body straight, and establishing mindfulness at the front, being very mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out.

While breathing in long, he knows “I am breathing in long”, or, while breathing out long, he knows “I am breathing out long”; or, while breathing in short, he knows “I am breathing in short”, or, while breathing out short, he knows “I am breathing out short”.

Experiencing the whole body I will breathe in, like this he trains, experiencing the whole body I will breathe out, like this he trains; calming the bodily process I will breathe in, like this he trains, calming the bodily process I will breathe out, like this he trains.

Just as, monks, a clever turner or turner’s apprentice while making a long turn knows “I am making a long turn”, or, while making a short turn knows “I am making a short turn”, just so, monks, a monk while breathing in long, knows “I am breathing in long”, or, while breathing out long, he knows “I am breathing out long”; or, while breathing in short, he knows “I am breathing in short”, or, while breathing out short, he knows “I am breathing out short”.

Experiencing the whole body I will breathe in, like this he trains, experiencing the whole body I will breathe out, like this he trains; calming the bodily process I will breathe in, like this he trains, calming the bodily process I will breathe out, like this he trains.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

The Section about In-breathing and Out-breathing is Finished

The Section about the Postures

Moreover, monks, a monk while going knows “I go”; or, standing he knows “I am standing”; or, sitting he knows “I am sitting”; or, while lying down he knows “I am lying down”; or, in whatever way his body is disposed, he knows it is (disposed) in that way.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

The Section about the Postures is Finished

The Section about Full Awareness

Moreover, monks, a monk in going forwards, in going back, is one who practises with full awareness; in looking ahead, or in looking around, he is one who practises with full awareness; in bending or in stretching, he is one who practises with full awareness; in bearing his double-robe, bowl, and (other) robes, he is one who practises with full awareness; in eating, in drinking, in chewing, in tasting, he is one who practises with full awareness; in passing stool and urine, he is one who practises with full awareness; in going, in standing, in sitting; in sleeping, in waking; in talking, and in maintaining silence, he is one who practises with full awareness.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

The Section about Full Awareness is Finished

The Section about Applying the Mind to Repulsiveness

Moreover, monks, a monk in regard to this very body—from the sole of the feet upwards, from the hair of the head down, bounded by the skin, and full of manifold impurities—reflects (thus):

“There are in this body:

hairs of the head, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin,

flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys,

heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs,

intestines, mesentery, undigested food, excrement,

bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat,

tears, grease, spit, mucus, synovial fluid, urine.”

Just as though, monks, there were a bag open at both ends, full of various kinds of grain, such as: hill rice, white rice, mung beans, kidney beans, sesame seeds, chickpeas; and a man with good vision having opened it were to reflect (thus): “This is hill rice, this is white rice, these are mung beans, these are sesame seeds, these are chickpeas”; even so, monks, a monk in regard to this very body—from the sole of the feet upwards, from the hair of the head down, bounded by the skin, and full of manifold impurities—reflects (thus):

“There are in this body,

hairs of the head, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin,

flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys,

heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs,

intestines, mesentery, undigested food, excrement,

bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat,

tears, grease, spit, mucus, synovial fluid, urine.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

The Section about Applying the Mind to Repulsiveness is Finished

The Section about Applying the Mind to the Elements

Moreover, monks, a monk, in regard to this very body, however placed, however disposed, reflects by way of the elements:

“There are in this body, the earth element, the water element, the fire element, the wind element.”

Just as though, monks, a clever butcher, or a butcher’s apprentice, after slaughtering a cow, were sitting down at a crossroads after dividing it into portions; even so, monks, a monk in regard to this very body, however placed, however disposed, reflects by way of the elements:

“There are in this body, the earth element, the water element, the fire element, the wind element.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

The Section about Applying the Mind to the Elements is Finished

The Section about the Nine Charnel Grounds

The First Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, dead for one day, or dead for two days, or dead for three days, bloated, discoloured, having become quite rotten. He then compares it with his very own body (thinking): “This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The First Charnel Ground)

The Second Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, being eaten by crows, or being eaten by hawks, or being eaten by vultures, or being eaten by dogs, or being eaten by jackals, or being eaten by various kinds of worms. He then compares it with his very own body (thinking):

“This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Second Charnel Ground)

The Third Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, a skeleton, with flesh and blood, bound together by tendons. He then compares it with his very own body (thinking): “This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Third Charnel Ground)

The Fourth Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, a skeleton, without flesh, smeared with blood, bound together by tendons. He then compares it with his very own body (thinking):

“This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Fourth Charnel Ground)

The Fifth Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, a skeleton, no longer having flesh and blood, bound together by tendons. He then compares it with his very own body (thinking):

“This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Fifth Charnel Ground)

The Sixth Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, with bones no longer bound together, scattered in all directions, with a hand-bone here, with a foot-bone there, with a knee-bone here, with a thigh-bone there, with a hip-bone here, with a bone of the back there, with the skull here. He then compares it with his very own body (thinking):

“This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Sixth Charnel Ground)

The Seventh Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, having white bones, like the colour of a conch. He then compares it with his very own body (thinking):

“This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Seventh Charnel Ground)

The Eighth Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, a heap of bones more than a year old. He then compares it with his very own body (thinking):

“This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Eighth Charnel Ground)

The Ninth Charnel Ground

Moreover, monks, it’s as if a monk might see a body thrown into a charnel ground, rotten bones that have become like powder. He then compares it with his very own body (thinking):

“This body also has such a nature, has such a constitution, has not gone beyond this.”


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the body, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the body, or else mindfulness that “there is a body” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body.

(The Ninth Charnel Ground)

The Fourteen Contemplations of the Body are Finished

Contemplation of Feelings

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings?

Here, monks, a monk when experiencing a pleasant feeling; knows “I experience a pleasant feeling”; or, when experiencing an unpleasant feeling; he knows “I experience an unpleasant feeling”; or, when experiencing a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling he knows “I experience a neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling”.

Or, when experiencing a sensual pleasant feeling he knows “I experience a sensual pleasant feeling”; or, when experiencing a spiritual pleasant feeling; he knows “I experience a spiritual pleasant feeling”; or, when experiencing a sensual unpleasant feeling he knows “I experience a sensual unpleasant feeling”; or, when experiencing a spiritual unpleasant feeling; he knows “I experience a spiritual unpleasant feeling”; or, when experiencing a sensual neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling he knows “I experience a sensual neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling”; or, when experiencing a spiritual neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling he knows “I experience a spiritual neither-unpleasant-nor-pleasant feeling”.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the feelings, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the feelings, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the feelings, or else mindfulness that “there are feelings” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings.

Contemplation of Feelings is Finished

Contemplation of the Mind

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind?

Here, monks, a monk when a mind has passion knows “the mind has passion”, or when a mind is without passion he knows “the mind is without passion”; or when a mind has hate he knows “the mind has hate”, or when a mind is without hate he knows “the mind is without hate”; or when a mind has delusion he knows “the mind has delusion”, or when a mind is without delusion he knows “the mind is without delusion”; or when a mind is collected he knows “the mind is collected”, or when a mind is scattered he knows “the mind is scattered”; or when a mind has become very great he knows “the mind has become very great”, or when a mind has not become very great he knows “the mind has not become very great”; or when a mind is surpassable he knows “the mind is surpassable”, or when a mind is unsurpassable he knows “the mind is unsurpassable”; or when a mind is concentrated he knows “the mind is concentrated”, or when a mind is not concentrated he knows “the mind is not concentrated”; or when a mind is liberated he knows “the mind is liberated”, or when a mind is not liberated he knows “the mind is not liberated”.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the mind, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the mind, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the mind, or else mindfulness that “there is a mind” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating the (the nature of) the mind in the mind.

Contemplation of the Mind is Finished

Contemplation of (the Nature of) Things

The Section about the Hindrances

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things? Here, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the five hindrances.

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the five hindrances?

Here, monks, a monk having sensual desire in himself knows “there is sensual desire in myself”; or, not having sensual desire in himself he knows “there is no sensual desire in myself”. How there is an arising of sensual desire that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of sensual desire that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of abandoned sensual desire again in the future—that also he knows.

Having ill-will in himself he knows “there is ill-will in myself”; or, not having ill-will in himself he knows “there is no ill-will in myself”. How there is an arising of ill-will that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of ill-will that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of abandoned ill-will again in the future—that also he knows.

Having sloth and torpor in himself he knows “there is sloth and torpor in myself”; or, not having sloth and torpor in himself he knows “there is no sloth and torpor in myself”. How there is an arising of sloth and torpor that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of sloth and torpor that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of abandoned sloth and torpor again in the future—that also he knows.

Having agitation and worry in himself he knows “there is agitation and worry in myself”; or, not having agitation and worry in himself he knows “there is no agitation and worry in myself”. How there is an arising of agitation and worry that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of agitation and worry that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of abandoned agitation and worry again in the future—that also he knows.

Having doubt in himself he knows “there is doubt in myself”; or, not having doubt in himself he knows “there is no doubt in myself”. How there is an arising of doubt that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of doubt that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of abandoned doubt again in the future—that also he knows.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in things, or else mindfulness that “there are these (various) things” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the five hindrances.

The Section about the Hindrances is Finished

The Section on the Constituents (of Mind & Matter)

Moreover, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment.

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment?

Here, monks, a monk (knows): “such is form, such is the origination of form, such is the passing away of form; such is feeling, such is the origination of feeling, such is the passing away of feeling; such is perception, such is the origination of perception, such is the passing away of perception; such are (mental) processes, such is the origination of (mental) processes, such is the passing away of (mental) processes; such is consciousness, such is the origination of consciousness, such is the passing away of consciousness”.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in things, or else mindfulness that “there are these (various) things” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment.

The Section on the Constituents is Finished

The Section on the Sense-Spheres

Moreover, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the six internal and external sense-spheres.

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the six internal and external sense-spheres?

Here, monks, a monk knows the eye, and he knows forms; and the fetter that arises dependent on the pair of them—that also he knows. How there is an arising of a fetter that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of a fetter that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of an abandoned fetter again in the future—that also he knows.

He knows the ear, and he knows sounds, and the fetter that arises dependent on the pair of them—that also he knows. How there is an arising of a fetter that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of a fetter that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of an abandoned fetter again in the future—that also he knows.

He knows the nose, and he knows smells, and the fetter that arises dependent on the pair of them—that also he knows. How there is an arising of a fetter that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of a fetter that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of an abandoned fetter again in the future—that also he knows.

He knows the tongue, and he knows tastes, and the fetter that arises dependent on the pair of them—that also he knows. How there is an arising of a fetter that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of a fetter that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of an abandoned fetter again in the future—that also he knows.

He knows the body, and he knows tangibles, and the fetter that arises dependent on the pair of them—that also he knows. How there is an arising of a fetter that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of a fetter that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of an abandoned fetter again in the future—that also he knows.

He knows the mind, and he knows thoughts, and the fetter that arises dependent on the pair of them—that also he knows. How there is an arising of a fetter that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is an abandonment of a fetter that has arisen—that also he knows; and how there is a non-arising of an abandoned fetter again in the future—that also he knows.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in things, or else mindfulness that “there are these (various) things” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the six internal and external sense-spheres.

The Section on the Sense-Spheres is Finished

The Section about the Factors of Awakening

Moreover, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the seven factors of Awakening.

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the seven factors of Awakening?

Here, monks, a monk having the Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening in himself; knows “there is the Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening in myself”; or, not having the Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is no Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening in myself”. How there is an arising of the Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Mindfulness factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen—; that also he knows.

Having the Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is the Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening in myself”; or, not having the Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is no Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening in myself”. How there is an arising of the Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Investigation of the (nature) of things factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen (until) it comes to fulfilment—that also he knows.

Having the Energy factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is the Energy factor of Complete Awakening in myself”; or, not having the Energy factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is no Energy factor of Complete Awakening in myself”. How there is an arising of the Energy factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Energy factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen—that also he knows.

Having the Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is the Joy factor of Complete Awakening in myself”; or, not having the Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is no Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening in myself”. How there is an arising of the Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Joyful-Interest factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen—; that also he knows.

Having the Calmness factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is the Calmness factor of Complete Awakening in myself”; or, not having the Calmness factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is no Calmness factor of Complete Awakening in myself”. How there is an arising of the Calmness factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Calmness factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen—that also he knows.

Having the Concentration factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is the Concentration factor of Complete Awakening in myself”; or, not having the Concentration factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is no Concentration factor of Complete Awakening in myself”. How there is an arising of the Concentration factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Concentration factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen—that also he knows.

Having the Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is the Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening in myself”; or, not having the Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening in himself he knows “there is no Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening in myself”. How there is an arising of the Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening that has not arisen—that he knows; and how there is fulfilment of the development of the Equanimity factor of Complete Awakening that has arisen—that also he knows.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in things, or else mindfulness that “there are (various) things” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the seven Factors of Awakening.

The Section about the Factors of Awakening is Finished

The Section about the Four Truths

Moreover, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the Four Noble Truths.

And how, monks, does a monk dwell contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the Four Noble Truths?

Here, monks, a monk knows as it really is “this is Suffering”, he knows as it really is “this is the Origination of Suffering”, he knows as it really is “this is the Cessation of Suffering”, he knows as it really is “this is the Practice Leading to the Cessation of Suffering”.

The Truth of Suffering

Now what, monks, is the Noble Truth of Suffering?

Birth is suffering also old age is suffering also death is suffering also grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair, is suffering also being joined to what is not liked is suffering, also being parted from what is liked is suffering, also not to obtain that which one longs for is suffering in brief, the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment are suffering.

Now what, monks, is birth?

For the various beings in the various classes of beings (there is) birth, being born, appearing, turning up; the manifestation of the constituents (of mind and body), the acquisition of the sense spheres: this, monks, is called birth.

Now what, monks, is old age?

For the various beings in the various classes of beings there is old age, agedness, broken teeth, greying hair, and wrinkled skin; the dwindling away of the life span, the decay of the sense faculties: this, monks, is called old age.

Now what, monks, is death?

For the various beings in the various classes of beings there is a fall, a falling away, a breaking up, a disappearance, a dying, a death, a making of time; the break up of the constituents (of mind and body), the throwing off of the body; the cutting off of the life faculty: this, monks, is called death.

Now what, monks, is grief?

For he who has, monks, some sort of misfortune or other, who is touched by some sort of painful thing or another, there is grief, grieving, the state of grieving, inner grief, great inner grief: this, monks, is called grief.

Now what, monks, is lamentation?

For he who has, monks, some sort of misfortune or other, who is touched by some sort of painful thing or another, there are laments, great laments, lamenting, great lamenting, the state of lamenting, the state of great lamentation: this, monks, is called lamentation.

Now what, monks, is pain?

That, monks, which is bodily pain, bodily disagreeableness, pain born of contact with the body, disagreeable feeling: this, monks, is called pain.

Now what, monks, is sorrow?

That, monks, which is mental pain, mental disagreeableness, pain born of contact with the mind, disagreeable feeling: this, monks, is called sorrow.

Now what, monks, is despair?

For he who has, monks, some sort of misfortune or other, who is touched by some sort of painful thing or another, there is desponding, despairing, the state of despondency, the state of despair: this, monks, is called despair.

And what, monks, is the suffering from being joined to what is not liked?

Here, for that one who has unwanted, unlovely, unpleasant forms, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, and thoughts; or, for that one who has those who do not desire his welfare, benefit, comfort and security—(and then) having meetings, assembly, connection, and interaction with them: this, monks, is called the suffering from being joined to what is not liked.

And what, monks, is the suffering from being parted from what is liked?

Here, for that one who has wanted, lovely, pleasant forms, sounds, smells, tastes, tangibles, and thoughts; or, for that one who has those who do desire his welfare, benefit, comfort and security—mothers, or fathers, or brothers, or sisters, or friends, or companions, or blood relatives—(and then) not having meetings, assembly, connection, and interaction with them: this, monks, is called the suffering from being parted from what is liked.

Now what, monks, is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for?

To those beings subject to birth, monks, a longing like this arises: “Oh, might we not be subject to birth, may birth not come to us!” But that cannot be attained merely by longing for it: this is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for.

To those beings subject to old age, monks, a longing like this arises:

“Oh, might we not be subject to old age, may old age not come to us!” But that cannot be attained merely by longing for it: this is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for.

To those beings subject to sickness, monks, a longing like this arises:

“Oh, might we not be subject to sickness, may sickness not come to us!” But that cannot be attained merely by longing for it: this is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for. To those beings subject to death, monks, a longing like this arises: “Oh, might we not be subject to death, may death not come to us!” But that cannot be attained merely by longing for it: this is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for.

To those beings subject to grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair, monks, a longing like this arises:

“Oh, might we not be subject to grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair, may grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair, not come to us!” But that cannot be attained merely by longing for it: this is the suffering from not obtaining what one longs for.

Now what, monks, in brief, are the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment which are suffering?

They are as follows:

the form constituent that is fuel for attachment

the feelings constituent that is fuel for attachment

the perceptions constituent that is fuel for attachment

the (mental) processes constituent that is fuel for attachment

the consciousness constituent that is fuel for attachment.

These, monks, are called, in brief, the five constituents (of mind and body) that provide fuel for attachment which are suffering.

This, monks, is called the Noble Truth of Suffering.

The Truth of Origination

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Origination of Suffering?

It is that craving which leads to the continuation of existence, which is connected with enjoyment and passion, greatly enjoying this and that, as follows:

craving in regard to sense pleasures

craving in regard to the continuation of existence

craving in regard to the discontinuation of existence.

Now where, monks, does that craving when it is arising arise? When settling where does it settle?

In the world there is that which is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

And in the world what is likeable and pleasing?

In the world the eye is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world the ear is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world the nose is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world the tongue is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world the body is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world the mind is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world forms are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world sounds are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world smells are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world tastes are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world tangibles are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world thoughts are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world eye-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world ear-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world nose-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world tongue-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world body-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world mind-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world eye-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world ear-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world nose-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world tongue-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world body-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world mind-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world feeling born of eye-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world feeling born of ear-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world feeling born of nose-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world feeling born of tongue-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world feeling born of body-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world feeling born of mind-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world perception of forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world perception of sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world perception of smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world perception of tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world perception of tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world perception of thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world intention in regard to forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world intention in regard to sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world intention in regard to smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world intention in regard to tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world intention in regard to tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world intention in regard to thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world craving for forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world craving for sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world craving for smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world craving for tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world craving for tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world craving for thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world thinking about forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world thinking about sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world thinking about smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world thinking about tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world thinking about tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world thinking about thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.


In the world an examination of forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world an examination of sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world an examination of smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world an examination of tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world an examination of tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

In the world an examination of thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is arising arises, here when settling it settles.

This, monks, is called the Noble Truth of the Origination of Suffering.

The Truth of Cessation

And what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering?

It is the complete fading away and cessation without remainder of that craving—liberation, letting go, release, and non-adherence.

Now where, monks, is that craving when it is being abandoned (actually) abandoned? When ceasing, where does it cease?

In the world there is that which is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

And in the world what is likeable and pleasing?

In the world the eye is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world the ear is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world the nose is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world the tongue is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world the body is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In this world the mind is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In this world forms are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In this world sounds are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world smells are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world tastes are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world tangibles are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world thoughts are likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world eye-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world ear-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world nose-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world tongue-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world body-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world mind-consciousness is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world eye-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world ear-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world nose-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world tongue-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world body-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world mind-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world feeling born of eye-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world feeling born of ear-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world feeling born of nose-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world feeling born of tongue-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world feeling born of body-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world feeling born of mind-contact is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world perception of forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world perception of sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world perception of smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world perception of tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world perception of tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world perception of thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world intention in regard to forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world intention in regard to sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world intention in regard to smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world intention in regard to tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world intention in regard to tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world intention in regard to thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world craving for forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world craving for sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world craving for smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world craving for tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world craving for tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world craving for thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world thinking about forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world thinking about sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world thinking about smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world thinking about tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world thinking about tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world thinking about thoughts is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.


In the world an examination of forms is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world an examination of sounds is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world an examination of smells is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world an examination of tastes is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world an examination of tangibles is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

In the world an examination of thought s is likeable and pleasing—here this craving when it is being abandoned is abandoned, here when ceasing it ceases.

This, monks, is called the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering.

The Truth of the Path

Now what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Practice Leading to the Cessation of Suffering?

It is this noble path with eight factors, as follows: right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood right endeavour, right mindfulness, right concentration.

Now what, monks, is right view?

That, monks, which is knowledge about suffering knowledge about the origination of suffering knowledge about the cessation of suffering knowledge about the practice leading to the cessation of suffering.

This, monks, is called right view.

Now what, monks, is right thought?

The thought of renunciation, the thought of good-will, the thought of non-violence.

This, monks, is called right thought.

Now what, monks, is right speech?

Refraining from false speech refraining from malicious speech refraining from rough speech refraining from frivolous talk.

This, monks, is called right speech.

Now what, monks, is right action?

Refraining from killing living creatures refraining from taking what has not been given refraining from sexual misconduct.

This, monks, is called right action.

Now what, monks, is right livelihood?

Here, monks, a noble disciple, having abandoned a wrong way of livelihood, makes his living by a right way of livelihood.

This, monks, is called right livelihood.

Now what, monks, is right endeavour?

Here, monks, a monk regarding bad and unwholesome thoughts that have not yet arisen generates desire for their non-arising, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort.

Regarding bad and unwholesome things that have already arisen he generates desire for their abandonment, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort.

He generates desire for the arising of wholesome things that have not yet arisen, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort.

Regarding wholesome things that have arisen he generates desire for their endurance, persistence, multiplication, extension, development, and fulfilment, (in this regard) he endeavours, instigates energy, exerts his mind, and makes an effort.

This, monks, is called right endeavour.

Now what, monks, is right mindfulness?

Here, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

He dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

He dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

He dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

This, monks, is called right mindfulness.

Now what, monks, is right concentration?

Here, monks, a monk, quite secluded from sense desires, secluded from unwholesome things, having thinking, reflection, and the happiness and joy born of seclusion, dwells having attained the first absorption.

With the calming down of thinking and reflection, with internal clarity, and one-pointedness of mind, being without thinking, without reflection, having the happiness and joy born of concentration, he dwells having attained the second absorption.

With the fading away of joy he dwells equanimous, mindful, fully aware, experiencing happiness through the body, about which the Noble Ones declare: “He dwells pleasantly, mindful, and equanimous,” he dwells having attained the third absorption.

Having abandoned pleasure, abandoned pain, and with the previous passing away of mental happiness and sorrow, without pain, without pleasure, and with complete purity of mindfulness owing to equanimity, he dwells having attained the fourth absorption.

This, monks, is called right concentration.

This, monks, is called the Noble Truth of the Practice Leading to the Cessation of Suffering.


Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in things, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in things, or else mindfulness that “there are these (various) things” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.

In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, in the Four Noble Truths.

The Section about the Four Truths is Finished

Contemplation of (the Nature of) Things is Finished

The Advantages of Developing the Ways of Attending to Mindfulness

Whoever, monks, should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for seven years, for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected: final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone seven years, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for six years for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone six years, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for five years for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected: final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone five years, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for four years for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone four years, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for three years for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone three years, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for two years for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected: final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone two years, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for one year for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone one year, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for seven months for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone seven months, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for six months for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone six months, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for five months for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone five months, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for four months for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone four months, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for three months for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone three months, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for two months for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone two months, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for one month for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone a month, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for half a month for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

Let alone half a month, monks, whoever should develop these four ways of attending to mindfulness in this way for seven days for him, out of two results, a particular result is to be expected final knowledge in this very life; or, there being some attachment remaining, the state of non-returner.

This is a one-way path, monks, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of grief and lamentation, for the extinction of pain and sorrow, for attaining the right way, for the direct realisation of Nibbāna, that is to say, the four ways of attending to mindfulness. Thus, whatever was said, it is for this reason it was said.”

The Gracious One said this, and those monks were uplifted and greatly rejoiced in what was said by the Gracious One.

The Advantages of Developing the Ways of Attending to Mindfulness is Finished

The Long Discourse about the Ways of Attending to Mindfulness is Finished

Source is taken from: https://legacy.suttacentral.net/en/dn22