The Entrance into the Middle Way (Madhyamakavatara) By Chandrakirti – 1
L1: [A PRAISE OF COMPASSION]
L4: [A. Praising great compassion without distinguishing its types]
L5: [Showing great compassion to be the principal cause of a bodhisattva]
The whole text is mainly composed of 10 grounds/chapters of varying number of verses.
The sixth ground (wisdom) is the core of this text.
They are preceded by a praise to compassion,
and followed by ‘The Good Qualities of the 10 grounds’
and by the resulting grounds: Buddhahood,
and by a conclusion.
For some verses there is a second translation, see : <<< … >>>
(Note: ‘L#:’ indicates the level of this sub-section title;
These could be useful to regenerate the structure of the text if required.)
\ <<< Shravakas and intermediate Buddhas arise from the Mighty Ones. \ Buddhas are born from the bodhisattvas. \ And compassionate mind, non-dual awareness, \ And bodhicitta are the causes of these heirs of the Victors. (1) >>>
\ Hearers and Middling Buddhas [i.e. Solitary Realizers] are born from the Powerful Able Ones;
\ Buddhas are born from Bodhisattvas;
\ And the mind of compassion, the wisdom of non-duality,
\ And Bodhicitta are the [three] causes of Conquerors Sons.
L5: [Showing great compassion to be the root of the other two causes of bodhisattva]
\ <<< Since I assert that loving kindness itself is the seed of the Victors’ abundant harvest, \ Is the water which causes it to flourish, \ And is its ripening that allows it to be enjoyed for a long time, \ I therefore praise compassion at the very outset. (2) >>>
\ Because for this bountiful harvest of the Conquerors
\ Compassion itself is like the seed, like water for growth,
\ And like ripening remaining for long enjoyment,
\ At the beginning I praise compassion.
L4: [B. An homage to the great compassion distinguishing its three types]
L5: [1. An homage to compassion observing mere living beings]
\ <<< First thinking “me”, they fixate on “self,” \ Then, thinking, “This is mine,” attachment to things develops. \ Beings are powerless, like a rambling water mill— \ I bow to compassion for these wanderers. (3) >>>
\ I bow down to that compassion for living beings
\ Who from first conceiving ‘I’ with respect to the self,
\ Then thinking ‘This is mine’ and generating attachment for things,
\ Are without self-control like the spinning of a well.
L5: [2. A homage to compassion observing phenomena and the unobservable]
\ <<< Beings are like the moon on the surface of rippling water— \ They move and are empty of any self nature. (4ab) >>>
\ Living beings are seen to be transient and empty of inherent existence,
\ Like a moon in rippling water.
L1: [GROUNDS AND PATHS]
L1: [A PRESENTATION OF CAUSAL GROUNDS]
L2: [A PRESENTATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL GROUNDS]
L3: [The First Mind Generation: Perfect Joy (17 verses) – Giving]
L4: [A. Briefly showing the entity of the ground, the basis of characteristics]
\ <<< The Victors’ heirs see this and in order to free beings completely \ Their minds come under the power of compassion, (4cd) \ And perfectly dedicating their virtue with Samantrabhadra’s prayer, \ They perfectly abide in joy—this is called “the first”. (5ab) >>>
\ #4c 5b.
\ The mind of this Conquerors’ Son,
\ Governed by compassion to liberate living beings completely,
\ Thoroughly dedicated with Samantabhadra’s prayers,
\ And always abiding in joy, is called the first.
L4: [B. An extensive explanation of the good qualities that characterize the ground]
L5: [B.1 The good qualities that beautify one’s own continuum]
L6: [B.1.1 Enumerating the good qualities/ Benefits of Bodhicitta]
\ <<< Having attained this ground \ They are called by the name “bodhisattva”. (5cd) >>>
\ From then on, because he has attained this,
\ He is addressed by the very name ‘Bodhisattva’ (1).
\ <<< They are born into the family of the tatagathas. \ They abandon all three that entangle sothoroughly. \ These bodhisattvas possess extraordinary happiness, \ And can cause a hundred worlds to quake. (6) \ Advancing from ground to ground, they fully progress upwards— (7a) >>>
\ He is also born into the lineage of the Tathagatas (2)
\ And has [completely] abandoned all three bonds (3).
\ This Bodhisattva possesses a supreme joy (4)
\ And is able to cause a hundred worlds to shake (5).
\ Mastering ground after ground, he advances higher (6).
\ <<< At that time, all paths to the lower realms are sealed off. \ At that time, all grounds of ordinary beings evaporate— \ They are taught to be like the eighth ground of the noble ones. (7bcd) >>>
\ At that time for him all paths to lower rebirths have ceased (7);
\ At that time for him all grounds of ordinary beings are exhausted (8).
L6: [B.1.2 Showing the good qualities in brief]
\ He is shown to be similar to an eighth Superior [of the Hinayana].
L5: [B.2. The good qualities that outshine others’ continuums / emptiness and liberation]
L6: [B.2.1 Outshining Hearers and Solitary Realizers by way of lineage on this ground]
\ <<< Even those abiding on the first ground of perfect bodhicitta, \ Through the power of their merit, outshine \ Both those born of the Mighty One’s speech and the solitary sages. \ On the ground Gone Far Beyond, their minds also become superior. (8) >>>
\ Even when abiding on the first view of the mind of complete enlightenment,
\ He defeats those born from the speech of the
\ Powerful Able One [Hearer Superiors] and the Solitary Buddhas [Solitary Realizer Superiors] [i.e. Hinayana Superiors]
\ Through the power of his greatly increased merit;
L6: [B.2.2 Outshining Hearers and Solitary Realizers by way of wisdom on the seventh ground]
\ And on Gone Afar (7) he surpasses them in wisdom.
L6: [B.2.3 An explanation of the meaning established by this teaching]
L5: [B.3 The surpassing good quality of the first ground / the perfection of giving]
L6: [B.3.1 An explanation of the giving of one who abides on the first ground]
\ <<< At that time, the first cause of complete enlightenment, \ Generosity, becomes preeminent. \ When one is enthusiastic even about giving away one’s own flesh, \ This is a sign of something that normally cannot be seen. (9) >>>
\ At that time giving, the first cause of the enlightenment of complete Buddhahood,
\ Becomes surpassing for him.
\ That he acts gracefully even when giving his own flesh
\ Is a reason for inferring the non-apparent.
L6: [B.3.2 An explanation of the giving of lower bases – giving practiced by ordinary beings who are not Bodhisattvas]
L7: [i. Attaining samsaric happiness through giving]
\ <<< All beings strongly desire happiness \ But human happiness does not occur without objects of enjoyment. \ Knowing that these objects arise from generosity, \ The Mighty One taught generosity first. (10) >>>
\ All these beings strongly desire happiness,
\ And [ordinary] humans cannot be happy without enjoyments [basic enjoyments like food, drink, clothing, and shelter].
\ Knowing that these enjoyments [in this life] come from giving [in former lives],
\ The Able One taught giving first [of the ten paramitas].
\ <<< Even for those without much compassion \ Who are extremely hot-tempered and self-concerned, \ The objects of enjoyment they desire \ And that pacify their suffering come from generosity. (11) >>>
\ Even for those with little compassion and very rough minds,
\ Who pursue only their own interests,
\ Desired enjoyments [in future lives] that cause the alleviation of suffering
\ Arise from giving [in this life].
L7: [ii. Attaining the happiness of nirvana through giving]
\ <<< Even they, through an occasion of giving, \ Will meet a noble being, receive their counsel, \ And soon after, completely cutting the stream of cyclic existence, \ They will progress to peace, the result of that. (12) >>>
\ Even they, on some occasion of giving,
\ Will soon come to meet a Superior being
\ Then, having severed the continuum of samsara completely,
\ Those who possess this cause will go to peace.
L6: [B.3.3 An explanation of Bodhisattvas’ giving]
L7: [i. The uncommon benefits of Bodhisattvas’ giving]
\ <<< Those whose minds vow to benefit beings \ Quickly gain happiness from their acts of generosity. (13ab) >>>
\ Those who hold in their mind a promise to help living beings
\ Immediately experience joy from giving.
L7: [ii. The instructions on giving are fundamental for both bases]
\ <<< It is for those who are loving and those who are not— \ Therefore, generosity is foremost. (13cd) >>>
\ Therefore whether one is compassionate or not,
\ The instructions on giving are fundamental.
L7: [iii. The great joy a Bodhisattva obtains from giving]
\ <<< The happiness of an arhat attaining peace \ Cannot match the joy experienced by a bodhisattva \ Upon merely hearing the words, “Please give to me.” \ So what need to mention their joy when they give away everything? (14) >>>
\ If from hearing and contemplating the word ‘Give (1)’,
\ The Conquerors’ Son develops a bliss
\ The like of which is not aroused in the Able Ones through experiencing peace,
\ What can be said about giving everything?
L7: [iv. Whether a Bodhisattva experiences pain when giving away his body]
\ <<< The pain one feels from cutting one’s own flesh to give it away \ Brings the suffering of others in the hell realms and so forth \ Directly into one’s own experience, \ And awakens one’s vigor in striving to cut that suffering off. (15) >>>
\ Through the pain from cutting and giving his body,
\ He sees from his own experience
\ The suffering of others in the hells and elsewhere,
\ And strives with great effort to eliminate it quickly.
L6: [B.3.4 The divisions of the perfection of giving]
\ <<< Giving empty of gift, giver, and recipient \ Is a transcendent perfection beyond the world. \ When attachment to these three arises, \ That is a mundane transcendent perfection. (16) >>>
\ Giving with emptiness of giver, gift, and receiver
\ Is called a supramundane perfection.
\ Where attachment to these three is generated
\ It is explained as a mundane perfection.
L4: [C. Conclusion by way of expressing the good qualities of the ground]
\ <<< Like that, the Victors’ heirs utterly abide in the mind of bodhicitta \ And from their excellent support, joy’s light beautifully shines. \ This joy, like the jewel of the water crystal, \ Completely dispels the thick darkness—it is victorious! (17) >>>
\ Thus, abiding high in the mind of the Conquerors’ Son,
\ Beautifying with light this holy base,
\ This Joyful (1) is like a water crystal jewel [i.e. the moon];
\ For having dispelled all heavy darkness it is victorious.
L3: [The Second Mind Generation The Stainless (10 verses) – Moral discipline]
L4: [A. The completely pure moral discipline on this ground]
L5: [A.1 The excellent moral discipline on this ground]
L5: [A.2 The completely pure qualities that depend upon this]
\ <<< Because the bodhisattvas’ discipline has such excellent qualities, \ They abandon the stains of faulty discipline even in their dreams. \ Since their movements of body, speech and mind are pure, \ They gather the ten types of virtue on the path of the genuine ones. (1) >>>
\ Because he possesses excellent moral discipline (2) and pure qualities,
\ He has abandoned the stains of degenerate discipline even in his dreams.
\ Because his conduct of body, speech, and mind is pure,
\ He accumulates all ten paths of holy actions.
L5: [A.3 This moral discipline surpasses that of the first ground]
\ <<< These ten types of virtue have been practiced before, \ But here they are superior because they have become so pure. \ Like an autumn moon, the bodhisattvas are always pure, \ Beautified by their serenity and radiance. (2) >>>
\ For him all these ten virtuous paths
\ Are perfected, and so extremely pure.
\ Like the autumn moon he is always completely pure.
\ Pacified and radiant, he is beautified by these.
L5: [A.4 Another cause of completely pure moral discipline]
\ <<< But if they thought their pure discipline had an inherent nature, \ Their discipline would not be pure at all. \ Therefore, they are at all times completely free \ Of dualistic mind’s movement towards the three spheres. (3) >>>
\ If we keep pure moral discipline with the view of inherent existence,
\ Then because of that our moral discipline is not pure.
\ Therefore he is always completely free from the wanderings
\ Of the dualistic mind towards the three.
L4: [B. A praise of moral discipline]
L5: [B.1 Enjoying the fruits of giving in fortunate realms depends upon moral discipline]
L5: [B.2 Enjoying the fruits of giving continuously depends upon moral discipline]
\ <<< Generosity can result in wealth gained in the lower realms \ When an individual has lost their legs of discipline. \ Once the wealth’s principal and interest are completely spent, Material enjoyments will not come again. (4) >>>
\ If enjoyments [in the next life] that result from giving [in this life] arise in a lower rebirth [in the next life],
\ It is because that being broke his legs of moral discipline [in this life].
\ If both the interest and the capital are spent,
\ No enjoyments will arise for him in the future.
L5: [B.3 It is extremely difficult for those who lack moral discipline to escape from the lower realms]
\ <<< If when independent and enjoying favorable circumstances, \ One does not protect oneself from falling into the lower realms, \ Once one has fallen into the abyss and has no power to escape, \ What will be able to lift one up and out of that? (5) >>>
\ If, when living in good conditions and acting with freedom,
\ We do not act to hold ourself back [in this life],
\ Once we have fallen into the abyss and lost our freedom [in the next life],
\ How shall we raise ourself from there in the future [in subsequent lives]?
L5: [B.4 Why the instructions on moral discipline were given after the instructions on giving]
\ <<< Therefore, after giving his advice on generosity, \ The Victor taught about accompanying it with discipline. \ When good qualities thrive in discipline’s field, \ The enjoyment of their fruits is unceasing. (6) >>>
\ Therefore the Conqueror taught moral discipline
\ After he had taught giving.
\ When qualities grow in the field of moral discipline,
\ The fruits will be enjoyed unceasingly.
L5: [B.5 Praising moral discipline as a cause of both high status and definite goodness]
\ <<< For ordinary individuals, those born of the Buddha’s speech, \ Those set on solitary enlightenment, \ And heirs of the Victor, \ The cause of the higher realms and of true excellence is nothing other than discipline. (7) >>>
\ There is no cause other than moral discipline [in this life]
\ For the high status [happiness in the next life] and definite goodness [i.e. happiness of liberation and enlightenment]
\ Of ordinary beings, those born from the speech,
\ Those definite in self-enlightenment, and Conquerors’ Sons. [for all beings whatever their goal is]
L4: [C. An illustration of separation from that which is incompatible with moral discipline]
\ <<< Like the ocean with a corpse, \ And auspiciousness with misfortune, \ When great beings come under discipline’s power, \ They do not abide together with its decay. (8) >>>
\ As with an ocean and a corpse together,
\ And auspiciousness and misfortune together,
\ So too this great being controlled by moral discipline
\ Has no desire to remain with that which is degenerate.
L4: [D. The divisions of the perfection of moral discipline]
\ <<< If there be any focus on these three— \ The one who abandons, the abandoned act, and the one with regard to whom it is abandoned— \ Such discipline is explained to be a worldly transcendent perfection. \ Discipline empty of attachment to these three has gone beyond the world. (9) >>>
\ If there is observation of the three-
\ What is abandoned, by whom, and with respect to whom –
\ That moral discipline is explained as a mundane perfection.
\ That which is empty of attachment to the three is supramundane.
L4: [E. Conclusion by way of expressing the good qualities of the ground]
\ <<< Free from stains, The Stainless, the bodhisattvas arising from the moon \ Are not of the world, yet are the world’s glory. \ Like the light of the moon in autumn \ They assuage the torment in the minds of beings. (10) >>>
\ This Stainless (2), free from stains, arises from the moon, the Conquerors’ Son,
\ Who although not of samsara is the glory of samsara;
\ And just like the light of the autumn moon,
\ It relieves the mental torment of living beings.
L3: [The Third Mind Generation: The Luminous (13 verses) – Patience]
L4: [A. The etymology of the ground, the basis of characteristics]
\ <<< Here the kindling of all objects of knowledge is consumed in a fire \ Whose light is the reason this third ground is called The Luminous. \ At this time, an appearance like the copper sun \ Dawns for the heirs of the sugatas. (1) >>>
\ Because there arises the light of the fire
\ That consumes all the fuel of objects of knowledge, this third ground is Luminous (3).
\ At this time there arises for the Sugatas’ Son
\ A copper-like appearance similar to the sun.
L4: [B. The good qualities that characterize this ground]
L5: [B.1 The surpassing patience on this ground – of bodhisattvas]
\ <<< Even if someone becomes enraged with a bodhisattva, who is not an appropriate object of anger, \ And cuts the flesh and bone from their body \ Ounce by ounce over a long period of time, \ The bodhisattva’s patience with the one who is cutting grows even greater. (2) >>>
\ Even if someone inappropriately angered
\ Were to cut flesh and bone from his body,
\ Piece by piece for a long time,
\ He would generate a superior patience (3) towards the mutilator.
\ <<< For the bodhisattvas who see selflessness, \ The flesh cut off of them, the one who is cutting, the length of time cut, and the manner in which it is done— \ All these phenomena they see are like reflections, \ And for this reason as well they are patient. (3) >>>
\ Furthermore, for the Bodhisattva who has seen selflessness,
\ What is cut, by whom, at what time and in what manner All these phenomena are seen to be like reflections;
\ Therefore he is patient.
L5: [B.2 The way to rely upon other patience – for ordinary beings]
L6: [B.2.1 The unsuitability of getting angry]
L7: [i. Anger is unsuitable because it is unnecessary and very faulty]
\ <<< Once the harm is done, if one becomes angry, \ Does that anger reverse what has happened? \ Therefore, anger certainly brings no benefit here, \ And will be of detriment in future lives as well. (4) >>>
\ If someone harms us and we become angry,
\ Does our anger undo what was done?
\ Thus getting angry is certainly senseless here,
\ And contradictory with the world beyond.
L7: [ii. Not wishing future suffering and retaliating harmfully are contradictory]
\ <<< The harm one experiences is said to be the very thing \ That exhausts whatever wrong deeds one performed in the past. \ So why would the bodhisattva, through anger and harming another, \ Again plant the seeds for future suffering to be endured? (5) >>>
\ How can one who wants to assert that he is eradicating
\ The effects of non-virtuous actions committed in the past
\ Sow the seeds of future suffering
\ Through anger and harm towards others?
L7: [iii. Anger is unsuitable because it destroys virtues previously accumulated over a long time]
\ <<< Since getting angry with bodhisattvas \ Instantly destroys all the virtue \ That generosity and discipline have accumulated over a hundred eons, \ There is no greater negativity than impatience. (6) >>>
\ Through getting angry with Conquerors’ Sons [i.e. a Bodhisattva]
\ Virtues accumulated from giving and moral discipline
\ Over a hundred aeons are destroyed in an instant;
\ Therefore there is no evil greater than anger.
L7: [iv. Stopping anger having contemplated the many faults of impatience]
\ <<< It makes one ugly, brings one close to those not genuine, \ And robs one of the ability to discriminate right from wrong. \ Impatience quickly hurls one into the lower realms— (7abc) >>>
\ Impatience creates unattractive forms, leads to the unholy,
\ Robs us of our discrimination that knows right from wrong,
\ And soon throws us into lower realms.
L6: [B.2.2 The suitability of relying upon patience]
L7: [i. Contemplating the many benefits of patience]
\ <<< Patience brings out the good qualities opposite to these. (7d) \ Patience makes one beautiful and endears one to the genuine beings. \ It brings one skill in knowing what is appropriate and what is not. \ Later it brings birth as a human or a god \ And exhaustion of negative deeds as well. (8) >>>
\ Patience produces qualities opposite to what has been explained .
\ From patience come beauty, closeness to holy beings,
\ Skill in knowing the suitable and unsuitable;
\ And after this, birth as a human or god;
\ And the eradication of negativity.
L7: [ii. In summary, an exhortation to rely upon patience]
\ <<< Ordinary beings and heirs of the Victor \ Should realize the faults of anger and the good qualities of patience, \ Abandon impatience, and always quickly rely \ On the patience praised by the noble ones. (9) >>>
\ Knowing the faults of anger and the good qualities of patience
\ In ordinary beings and Conquerors’ Sons,
\ We should quickly abandon impatience
\ And always rely upon patience praised by Superior beings.
L5: [B.3 The divisions of the perfection of patience]
\ <<< Even though dedicated to the enlightenment of perfect Buddhahood, \ If it focuses on the three spheres, it is worldly. \ When there is no focus, the Buddha taught, \ This is a transcendent perfection beyond the world. (10) >>>
\ Although dedicated to the enlightenment of complete Buddhahood,
\ If there is observation of the three, it is mundane.
\ Buddha taught that if there is no observation,
\ That is a supramundane perfection.
L5: [B.4 The other pure qualities that arise on this ground]
\ <<< On this ground the Victor’s heirs gain the samadhis and clairvoyances, \ Desire and aversion are completely exhausted, \ And they are ever able to vanquish \ The desire experienced by worldly beings. (11) >>>
\ The Conquerors’ Son on this ground
\ Has the mental stabilizations and clairvoyance
\ Attachment and hatred are completely extinguished,
\ And he is always able to overcome the desirous attachment of worldly beings.
L4: [C. The characteristics of the first three perfections]
\ <<< Generosity and so forth—these three dharmas \ The Sugata particularly praised to lay people. \ They are also the accumulation of merit \ And the causes of the Buddha’s form body. (12) >>>
\ These three Dharmas, giving [moral discipline and patience] and so forth,
\ Are especially praised by the Sugatas for lay people.
\ They are known as the ‘collection of merit’,
\ The cause of a Buddha’s Body that is the nature of form.
L4: [D. Conclusion by way of expressing the good qualities of the ground]
\ <<< The heirs of the Victor, abiding in the sun, these luminous ones, \ First perfectly dispel the darkness present in themselves, \ And then fervently yearn to vanquish the darkness in others. \ On this ground, though incredibly sharp, they do not become angry. (13) >>>
\ This Luminous (3), abiding in the sun, the Conquerors’ Son,
\ First completely removes the darkness within himself,
\ And then strongly wishes to eliminate the darkness of living beings.
\ Being very sharp on this ground, he never gets angry.
L3: [The Fourth Mind Generation: The Radiant (2 verses) – Effort]
L4: [A. The surpassing effort on this ground]
\ <<< All good qualities follow after diligence— \ It is the cause of both the accumulations of merit and wisdom. \ The ground where diligence blazes \ Is the fourth, The Radiant. (1) >>>
\ All good qualities follow upon effort,
\ The cause of the two collections of merit and wisdom.
\ The ground on which effort blazes (4)
\ Is the fourth, Radiant (4).
L4: [B. The etymology of this ground]
\ <<< Here for the heirs of the Sugatas there dawns an appearance \ Even better than the copper light — \ It arises from an even greater cultivation of the branches of perfect enlightenment. (2abc) >>>
\ There, for the Sugatas’ Son,
\ There arises an appearance superior to the copper light
\ That is produced from superior meditation on the realizations conducive to complete enlightenment;
L4: [C. The characteristics of abandonment]
\ <<< Everything connected with the views of self and self-entity is completely exhausted. (2d) >>>
\ And what is related to the view of self is completely eradicated.
L3: [The Fifth Mind Generation: The Difficult to Overcome (1 verse) – Concentration]
L4: [A. The etymology of the fifth ground]
\ <<< The great beings on the ground that is Difficult toOvercome \ Cannot be defeated even by all the maras. >>>
\ This great being on the ground Difficult to Overcome (5)
\ Cannot be defeated even by all the maras.
L4: [B. The surpassing mental stabilization and skill in the truths]
\ <<< Their meditative stability becomes superior and their excellent minds \ Become incredibly skilled in subtle realization of the nature of the truths. >>>
\ His mental stabilization is surpassing (5),
\ and he also attains great skill in realizing
\ The [gross and] subtle nature of the [noble] truths of a good mind [i.e. they are truths for Superior Beings].
L3: [The Sixth Mind Generation: The Approach (226 verses) – Wisdom]
L4: [1. Introduction to the sixth ground]
L4: [2. Explanation of the sixth ground]
L5: [2.1 The etymology of this ground and the surpassing perfection of wisdom]
\ <<< The perfect bodhisattvas whose minds rest in the equipoise of the approach \ Approach the qualities of Buddhahood. \ They see the suchness of dependent arising \ And from abiding in wisdom, they will attain cessation. (1) >>>
\ Abiding in a mind of meditative equipoise on Approaching (6),
\ He approaches the state of complete Buddhahood.
\ He sees the thatness of dependent arising,
\ And through abiding in wisdom (6) attains cessation.
L5: [2.2 A praise of the perfection of wisdom]
\ <<< Just as a person with eyes \ Can easily lead a whole group of blind people wherever they wish to go, \ So here, the mind endowed with wisdom \ Guides the blind qualities to the Victor’s ground. (2) >>>
\ Just as one person with sight can easily lead
\ A whole group of blind people to where they want to go,
\ Similarly here, wisdom takes those qualities that lack sight
\ And goes to the state of a Conqueror.
L5: [2.3 An explanation of the profound thatness of dependent arising]
L6: [2.3.1 A promise to explain the profound meaning]
\ <<< The way the bodhisattvas realize the incredibly profound dharma \ Was explained [by Nagarjuna] with scripture and reasoning. \ Therefore, just as the noble Nagarjuna did in his texts, \ So will I explain things here. (3) >>>
\ I shall explain the very profound Dharma
\ According to the works of Superior Nagarjuna,
\ Where it is presented through scripture and reasoning
\ Just as he realizes it.
L6: [2.3.2 Recognizing a suitable recipient for an explanation of the profound meaning]
\ <<< Those who even as ordinary beings, upon hearing of emptiness Again and again experience great happiness within, \ Have their eyes fill with the tears of joy, \ And the hairs on their body stand on end, (4) \ Those are people with the seed of the perfect Buddha’s mind. \ They are vessels for the teachings on suchness. \ They should be taught the truth of genuine reality. . .(5abc) >>>
\ Even while an ordinary being, if upon hearing of emptiness
\ Great joy arises within again and again,
\ The eyes moisten with tears of great joy,
\ And the hairs of the body stand on end,
\ Such a person has the seed of the mind of a complete Buddha;
\ He is a vessel for teachings on thatness,
\ And ultimate truth should be taught to him.
\ After that, good qualities will grow in him.
L6: [2.3.3 How good qualities arise when it is explained to such a person]
\ <<< And all the good qualities coming from that will arise within them. (5d) \ Their discipline is always perfect, \ They give generously, rely on compassion, \ Cultivate patience, and the resulting virtue \ They thoroughly dedicate to enlightenment in order to liberate beings. (6) \ They respect the perfect bodhisattvas. (7a) >>>
\ After that, good qualities will grow in him.
\ He will take up and always maintain pure moral discipline,
\ Practice giving, rely upon compassion,
\ Become acquainted with patience,
\ Fully dedicate all his virtues to enlightenment to liberate living beings,
\ And have respect for perfect Bodhisattvas.
L6: [2.3.4 Exhorting those who are suitable recipients to listen]
\ <<< The individual who is skilled in the profound and vast natures \ Will gradually progress to the ground of Perfect Joy. \ Therefore, those who wish to do the same should listen [to the teachings about] this path. (7bcd) >>>
\ Since beings who are skilled in the ways of the profound and the vast
\ Gradually attain the ground, Very Joyful (1),
\ Those who seek that should listen to this path.
L6: [2.3.5 The actual explanation of the profound thatness of dependent arising]
L6: [18.104.22.168 How the correct meaning is revealed in the scriptures : the ten equalities]
L6: [22.214.171.124 Identifying the negated object]
L6: [126.96.36.199 Establishing the meaning of the scriptures by reasoning]
L6: [188.8.131.52.1 ESTABLISHING SELFLESSNESS OF PHENOMENA BY REASONING]
L7: [PHENOMENA-1 Refuting the four extremes of production within both truths]
L8: [PHENOMENA-A. There is no inherently existent production]
\ <<< It does not arise from itself; \ how could it arise from something else? \ It does not arise from self and other together; \ how could it arise without a cause? (8ab) >>>
\ It does not arise from itself;
\ how can it come from other?
\ Also it is not from both;
\ how can it be without a cause?
L8: [PHENOMENA-B. Proving this by reasoning]
L8: [PHENOMENA-B.1 – SELF : Refuting production from self]
L9: [SELF- PRODUCTION.1 Refuting production from self with the reasoning from Chandrakirti’s commentary]
L9: [SELF-PRODUCTION.1.1 Refuting the system of the Samkhya school]
L9: [SELF-PRODUCTION.1.1.1 Refuting production from a cause that is the same entity]
L9: [SELF-PRODUCTION.1.1.1-i. It follows that production from a cause that is the same entity is pointless]
\ There is no point in it arising from itself.
L9: [SELF-PRODUCTION.1.1.1-ii. That things are produced from the same nature is contrary to reasoning]
\ Moreover, it is not reasonable that what has been produced is produced again.
\ If you assert that what is already produced is produced again,
\ Then the production from sprouts and so forth is not found here,
\ And seeds will continue to be produced until the end of time.
L9: [SELF-PRODUCTION.1.1.1-iii. Refuting a denial of these faults]
\ How can it destroy that?
L9: [SELF-PRODUCTION.1.1.2 Refuting that cause and effect are the same entity]
L9: [SELF-PRODUCTION.1.1.2-i. It follows that the shape and so forth of the sprout are not different from those of the seed]
\ For you, the shape, colour, taste, potentiality, and ripening of a sprout
\ Are not different from those of its cause, the seed.
L9: [SELF-PRODUCTION.1.1.2-ii. Refuting a denial of this fault]
\ If its previous nature is destroyed and it becomes an entity other than that,
\ At that time how is it the nature of that?
L9: [SELF-PRODUCTION.1.1.2-iii. It follows that both the seed and the sprout are similar in being either apprehendable or unapprehendable at any one time]
\ If, for you, the seed and the sprout are not different here,
\ Then either the sprout is unapprehendable just like the seed,
\ Or, since they are the same, that is also apprehendable just like the sprout.
\ Therefore you should not assert this.
L9: [SELF-PRODUCTION.1.2 Even worldly people whose minds are not affected by tenets do not assert production from self]
\ Because, though a cause has disintegrated, its effect is still seen,
\ Even the worldly do not assert that they are the same.
L9: [SELF-PRODUCTION.1.3 Conclusion from these refutation]
\ Therefore this fabrication that things arise from self
\ Is unacceptable in thatness and in the world.
L9: [SELF-PRODUCTION.2 Refuting production from self with the reasoning from Fundamental Wisdom]
\ If production from self is asserted,
\ Then product and producer, object and agent, are one.
\ Since they are not one, production from self should not be asserted
\ Because of the consequences extensively explained.
L8: [PHENOMENA-B.2 – OTHER : Refuting production from other]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.1 A description of the position asserting production from others]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.2 Refuting this system]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.2.1 A general refutation of production from other]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.2.1.1 The actual refutation of production from other]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.184.108.40.206 Refuting production from other in general]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.220.127.116.11-i Refuting by means of the consequence of excess]
\ If other arises in dependence upon other,
\ Then thick darkness arises even from flames.
\ Indeed everything arises from everything
\ Because all non-producers are similar in also being other.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.18.104.22.168-ii Refuting a denial of this fault]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.22.214.171.124-iia The denial of the fault]
\ ‘Something that can be produced is definitely called an effect;
\ And that which has the ability to produce it, though other, is a cause.
\ Thus, because it is produced from a producer of the same continuum,
\ A rice sprout is not from barley, or any other, as they are.’
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.126.96.36.199-iib Refuting this denial]
\ If you say this, then just as barley, corollas, kengshuka, and so forth
\ Are not called producers of a rice sprout, do not possess the ability,
\ Are not of the same continuum, and are not similar,
\ So too the rice seed is not any of these because it is other.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.188.8.131.52 Refuting particular production from other]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.184.108.40.206-i Refuting production from other where a cause precedes its effects]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.220.127.116.11-ia The actual refutation]
\ A sprout does not exist at the time of its seed,
\ So without otherness how can the seed be other?
\ Therefore, since production of a sprout from a seed is not established,
\ Give up this position of so-called ‘production from other’.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.18.104.22.168-ib Rejecting arguments against this refutation]
\ ‘Just as the highness and lowness of the two arms of a balance
\ Are seen to be simultaneous,
\ So too are the producing of what is to be produced and the ceasing of the producer.’
\ If you say this, even though they are simultaneous, there is no simultaneity here; it does not exist.
\ Since that being produced is approaching production, it does not exist,
\ And that ceasing, though existent, is said to be approaching cessation;
\ So how are they similar to a balance?
\ This production [of the sprout] without an agent [the sprout itself] is also an unacceptable entity.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.22.214.171.124-ii Refuting production from other where a cause is simultaneous with its effect]
\ ‘An eye consciousness is other than its simultaneous producers,
\ The eyes and so forth, and the discrimination and so forth that arise with it.’
\ If this is so, what need is there for an existent to arise?
\ If you say it does not exist, the faults in that have already been explained.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.126.96.36.199 Refuting production from other having analyzed effects by way of four alternatives]
\ If a producer producing a product that is other is a cause,
\ Then what is produced, an existent, a non-existent, both, or neither?
\ If it is an existent, what need is there for a producer, and what need is there if it is a non-existent?
\ What need is there for both, and what need is there for neither?
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.2.1.2 Denying that worldly people can damage this refutation — THE TWO TRUTHS]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.188.8.131.52 Denying damage by worldly people’s belief in production from other]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.184.108.40.206-i The argument that there is damage by worldly people]
\ ‘Since they rely upon their own views and assert the worldly to be valid,
\ What is the point of stating reasons here?
\ Worldly people also realize that other arises from other,
\ So production from other exists; what need for reasons here?’
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.220.127.116.11-ii Showing that there is no damage by worldly people]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.18.104.22.168-iia A general presentation of the two truths]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.22.214.171.124-iia-i All phenomena have two natures]
\ All things hold two entities:
\ Those that are found by seeing correctly and by seeing falsely.
\ It is said that the object of seeing correctly is thatness;
\ And that of seeing falsely a conventional truth.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.126.96.36.199-iia-ii The divisions of conventional truths with respect to the awareness of worldly people]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.188.8.131.52-iia-iia An explanation of correct and incorrect object-possessors with respect to the awareness of worldly people]
\ Furthermore, it is said that seeing falsely is of two types:
\ With clear powers and with faulty powers.
\ Awareness with faulty powers is held to be incorrect
\ When compared with awareness with good powers.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.184.108.40.206-iia-iib An explanation of correct and incorrect object with respect to the awareness of worldly people]
\ Whatever the worldly realize
\ By apprehending through the six powers without faults
\ Is true for the worldly.
\ The remainder are held by the worldly to be incorrect.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.220.127.116.11-iia-iii Mistaken conceived objects do not exist even nominally]
\ A nature as projected by Tirthikas,
\ Completely under the influence of the sleep of unknowing,
\ And what is projected on illusions, mirages, and so forth –
\ These are non-existent even for the worldly.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.18.104.22.168-iib Applying this to the present subject]
\ Just as what is observed by eyes with unclear sight
\ Does not damage awareness without unclear sight,
\ So minds lacking stainless wisdom
\ Do not damage a mind without stains.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.22.214.171.124-iic An explanation of the respective natures of the two truths]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.126.96.36.199-iic1 An explanation of conventional truths]
\ Because confusion obstructs nature it is conventional.
\ Whatever is fabricated by it but appears as true
\ Is said by the Able One to be a conventional truth;
\ But fabricated things exist only conventionally.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.188.8.131.52-iic2 An explanation of ultimate truth]
\ Whatever wrong entities such as floating hairs
\ May be projected due to unclear sight,
\ That which is the actual entity is seen by clear eyes.
\ You should understand thatness here in the same way.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.184.108.40.206-iid How the charge of damage by worldly people is itself damaged]
\ If the worldly are valid, then since the worldly see thatness,
\ What need is there for other Superiors,
\ And what need is there for superior paths?
\ That the confused are valid cannot also be correct.
\ In all cases the worldly are not valid;
\ Therefore, on the occasion of thatness, there is no damage by the worldly.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.220.127.116.11-iie How there can be damage worldly people]
\ If objects of the worldly are denied,
\ There is damage from the worldly by worldly renown.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.18.104.22.168 Denying damage by worldly people because there is no production from other for the worldly, even nominally]
\ From having only sown the seeds
\ The worldly claim ‘I produced this child’,
\ Or think ‘I planted this tree’;
\ Therefore there is no production from other, even for the worldly.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.2.1.3 The good qualities of this refutation]
\ Because a sprout is not other than its seed,
\ The seed is not destroyed at the time of the sprout;
\ And because they are not one,
\ We do not say that the seed exists at the time of the sprout.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.2.1.4 There is no inherently existent production at any time]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.22.214.171.124 Refuting the assertion of inherent existence]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.126.96.36.199-i It follows that a Superior being’s meditative equipoise causes the destruction of things]
\ If the dependent exist by way of their own characteristics,
\ Then things are destroyed by being negated;
\ Therefore emptiness causes the destruction of things.
\ Since this is not reasonable, things do not exist.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.188.8.131.52-ii It follows that nominal truths can withstand analysis]
\ Since, if these things are analyzed,
\ No object is found on this side of things,
\ Away from the nature of thatness,
\ Worldly nominal truths should not be analyzed.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.184.108.40.206-iii It follows that ultimate production is refutable]
\ By the reasoning on the occasion of thatness,
\ Production from self and other is inadmissible.
\ Since by that reasoning it is also inadmissible nominally,
\ By what is production established for you?
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.220.127.116.11 Rejecting an argument against this refutation]
\ Empty things such as reflections that depend upon collections
\ Are also not unknown.
\ Just as, there, awareness of their aspects is generated
\ From empty reflections and so forth,
\ So, although all things are empty,
\ They nevertheless generate from that emptiness.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.2.1.5 The good qualities of refuting inherently existing production within both truths]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.18.104.22.168 The good quality of easily avoiding extreme views]
\ And since they lack inherent existence in both truths
\ They are neither permanent nor annihilated.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.22.214.171.124 The good quality of great consistency with cause and effect]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.126.96.36.199-i Not asserting inherent existence does not entail acceptance of a consciousness-basis-of-all and so forth]
\ Since it does not inherently cease,
\ It has ability even though there is no basis-of-all.
\ Thus you should know that an appropriate effect will arise
\ Even though, in some cases, a long time elapses after an action has ceased.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.188.8.131.52-ii Showing by analogy how an effect arises after an action has ceased]
\ Having seen the observed object of a dream,
\ A fool will generate attachment even when awake.
\ Likewise, there is still an effect from an action
\ Even though it lacks inherent existence and has ceased.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.184.108.40.206-iii Rejecting arguments against this]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.220.127.116.11-iiia Rejecting the argument that the ripening of the effect would be endless]
\ Although the objects are similar in not existing,
\ Nevertheless, one with unclear sight sees the appearance of floating hairs
\ But not the appearance of other things.
\ In the same way, you should understand that ripened actions cannot ripen again.
\ Thus it is seen that non-virtuous ripening is from non-virtuous actions,
\ And virtuous ripening is from virtuous actions.
\ Those who realize that virtue and non-virtue do not exist will be liberated.
\ However, analyzing actions and their effects is discouraged.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.18.104.22.168-iiib Rejecting the argument of contradiction with the scriptures that reveal a consciousness-basis-of-all]
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.22.214.171.124-iiib1 The actual rejection of the argument of contradiction with the scripture]
\ ‘Basis-of-all exists’, ‘Person exists’,
\ ‘These aggregates alone exist’ –
\ These teachings are for those
\ Who cannot understand this very profound meaning.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.126.96.36.199-iiib2 An analogy of speech through the power of intention]
\ Even though he is free from the view of the transitory collection
\ Buddha reveals ‘I’ and ‘mine’.
\ In the same way, even though things lack inherent existence,
\ ‘Existence’ is revealed as an interpretative meaning.
L9: [OTHER-PRODUCTION.2.2 A refutation of the Chittamatra system in particular]
L9: [CHITTAMATRA.2.2.1 Refuting an inherently existent consciousness without externals]
L9: [CHITTAMATRA.188.8.131.52 Stating the other system]
\ ‘An apprehender is not seen without an apprehended.
\ By realizing the three realms as mere consciousness,
\ The Bodhisattva abiding in wisdom
\ Realizes thatness in mere consciousness.
\ Just as waves arise from a great ocean
\ When it is stirred by the wind,
\ Likewise, because of its potentials a mere consciousness arises
\ From the seed of all, which is called ‘basis-of-all’.
\ Therefore whatever is an other-powered entity
\ Is the cause of imputedly existent things.
\ It arises without external objects, exists,
\ And has the nature of not being an object of any elaboration. ‘
L9: [CHITTAMATRA.184.108.40.206 Refuting this system]
L9: [CHITTAMATRA.220.127.116.11-i An extensive presentation of the refutation]
L9: [CHITTAMATRA.18.104.22.168-ia Refuting examples of a truly existent consciousness without external objects]
L9: [CHITTAMATRA.22.214.171.124-ia1 Refuting the example of a dream]
L9: [CHITTAMATRA.126.96.36.199-ia1-i The example of a dream does not prove that consciousness is truly existent]
\ Where is there an example of a mind without an external object?
\ If you say it is like a dream then let us consider that.
\ For us mind does not exist even when dreaming;
\ Therefore you do not have an example.
\ If mind exists because we remember the dream when awake,
\ Then it is the same with external objects.
\ Just as according to you we remember, thinking ‘I saw’,
\ So, like that, external objects also exist.
L9: [CHITTAMATRA.188.8.131.52-ia1-ii The example of a dream does not prove that there are no external objects when awake]
\ ‘Because eye awareness is impossible in sleep, it does not exist;
\ Only mental awareness exists;
\ Yet its aspect is conceived as external.
\ As it is in dreams so it is here.’
\ If you say this, then just as for you external objects are not produced in dreams,
\ So mind too is not produced.
\ The eyes, the visual object, and the mind they generate –
\ All three are also false.
\ And those three of the remainder, ears and so forth, are also not produced.
L9: [CHITTAMATRA.184.108.40.206-ia1-iii The example of a dream proves that all things are false]
\ Just as when dreaming, so here when awake, things are false.
\ That mind does not exist, objects of enjoyment do not exist,
\ And the sense powers do not exist.
\ Here, as when awake,
\ So when not awake these three exist;
\ And upon waking all three no longer exist.
\ It is just the same when waking from the sleep of confusion.
L9: [CHITTAMATRA.220.127.116.11-ia2 Refuting the example of seeing floating hairs]
\ A mind of sense powers with unclear sight
\ And the hairs seen due to that unclear sight
\ Are both true with respect to that mind;
\ But both are false with respect to one who sees objects clearly.
\ If mind exists without an object of knowledge,
\ Then when his eyes focus on the place of those hairs
\ Even one without unclear sight will generate a mind of floating hairs.
\ Since this is not the case, it does not exist.
L9: [CHITTAMATRA.18.104.22.168-ib Refuting a consciousness generated from its potential]
L9: [CHITTAMATRA.22.214.171.124-ib1 Refuting that a consciousness to which an external object appears is generated or not generated from the ripening or non-ripening of imprints]
L9: [CHITTAMATRA.126.96.36.199-ib1-i Stating the other position]
\ ‘The observer does not have that mind
\ Because he does not have a ripened potential for it;
\ Not because of the absence of a thing existing as an object of knowledge.’
L9: [CHITTAMATRA.188.8.131.52-ib1-ii Refuting this position]
\ If you say this, it cannot be proven because that potential does not exist
L9: [CHITTAMATRA.184.108.40.206-ib1-iia Refuting an inherently existent potential with respect to the present]
\ A potential for the produced is impossible.
Continue to Part 2